14th Dalai Lama

The 14th Dalai Lama[a] (spiritual name Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, known as Tenzin Gyatso Lhamo Thondup),[b] known as Gyalwa Rinpoche to the Tibetan people, is the current Dalai Lama, the highest spiritual leader and former head of state of Tibet.[6] Born on 6 July 1935, or in the Tibetan calendar, in the Wood-Pig Year, 5th month, 5th day,[7] he is considered a living Bodhisattva; specifically, an emanation of Guanyin (Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva) . He is also the leader of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism,[8] formally headed by the Ganden Tripa. The central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the Dalai Lama with temporal duties until his exile in 1959.[9][10] On 29 April 1959, the Dalai Lama established the independent Tibetan government in exile in the north Indian hill station of Mussoorie, which then moved in May 1960 to Dharamshala, where he resides. He retired as political head in 2011 to make way for a democratic government, the Central Tibetan Administration.[11][12][13]

The 14th Dalai Lama was born to a farming family in Taktser (Hongya Village), in the traditional Tibetan region of Amdo (administratively Qinghai Province, Republic of China).[4][5] He was selected as the tulku of the 13th Dalai Lama in 1937 and formally recognized as the 14th Dalai Lama in a public declaration near the town of Bumchen in 1939.[14] As with the recognition process for his predecessor, a Golden Urn selection process was not used.[15][16][17][18] His enthronement ceremony was held in Lhasa on 22 February 1940 and he eventually assumed full temporal (political) duties on 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, after the People’s Republic of China’s occupation of Tibet.[14] The Tibetan government administered the historic Tibetan regions of Ü-TsangKham and Amdo.[19]

During the 1959 Tibetan uprising, the Dalai Lama escaped to India, where he currently lives in exile while remaining the most important spiritual leader of Tibet. The Dalai Lama advocates for the welfare of Tibetans while continuing to call for the Middle Way Approach to negotiations with China for the autonomy of the nation and the protection of its culture, including for the religious rights of Tibetans.

The Dalai Lama also meets with other world leaders, religious leaders, philosophers and scientists, and travels worldwide giving Tibetan Buddhist teachings. His work includes focus on the environmenteconomicswomen’s rightsnonviolenceinterfaith dialoguephysicsastronomyBuddhism and sciencecognitive neuroscience,[20][21][22] reproductive health and sexuality.

Along with his teachings on Tibetan Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, the Dalai Lama’s Kalachakra teachings and initiations are international events.

He is the chief Patron of the Maha Bodhi Society of India, conferred upon him at the 2008 Annual General Meeting of the Maha Bodhi Society of India.[23]

The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989, and the US Congressional Gold Medal in 2006. Time magazine named the Dalai Lama one of the “Children of Mahatma Gandhi” and Gandhi’s spiritual heir to nonviolence.[24][25]


Early life and background[edit source]

Lhamo Thondup[26] was born on 6 July 1935 to a farming and horse trading family in the small hamlet of Taktser,[c] or Chija Tagtser[31] (Chinese: 红崖村; pinyinHóngyá Cūnlit. ‘Redcliff Village’), at the edge of the traditional Tibetan region of Amdo in Qinghai Province.[27]

He was one of seven siblings to survive childhood and one of the three reincarnated Rinpoches in the same family. His eldest sister Tsering Dolma, was sixteen years his senior and was midwife to his mother at his birth.[32] She would accompany him into exile and found Tibetan Children’s Villages.[33] His eldest brother, Thupten Jigme Norbu, had been recognised at the age of three by the 13th Dalai Lama as the reincarnation of the high Lama, the 6th Taktser Rinpoche.[34] His fifth brother, Tendzin Choegyal, had been recognised as the 16th Ngari Rinpoche.[citation needed] His sister, Jetsun Pema, spent most of her adult life on the Tibetan Children’s Villages project.[citation needed] The Dalai Lama has said that his first language was “a broken Xining language which was (a dialect of) the Chinese language“, a form of Central Plains Mandarin, and his family speak neither Amdo Tibetan nor Lhasa Tibetan.[35][36][37]The Dalai Lama as a child

After the demise of the 13th Dalai Lama, in 1935, the Ordinance of Lama Temple Management (Chinese: 管理喇嘛寺廟條例)[38][39] was published by the Central Government. In 1936, the Method of Reincarnation of Lamas (Chinese: 喇嘛轉世辦法)[40][41] was published by the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission of the Central Government. Article 3 states that death of lamas, including the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama, should be reported to the Commission, soul boys should be located and checked by the Commission, and a lot-drawing ceremony with the Golden Urn system should be held. Article 6 states that local governments should invite officials from the Central Government to take care of the sitting-in-the-bed ceremony. Article 7 states that soul boys should not be sought from current lama families. Article 7 echoes what the Qianlong Emperor described in The Discourse of Lama to eliminate greedy families with multiple reincarnated rinpoches, lamas.[42] Based on custom and regulation, the regent was actively involved in the search for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama.

Following reported signs and visions, three search teams were sent out to the north-east, the east, and the south-east to locate the new incarnation when the boy who was to become the 14th Dalai Lama was about two years old.[43] Sir Basil Gould, British delegate to Lhasa in 1936, related his account of the north-eastern team to Sir Charles Alfred Bell, former British resident in Lhasa and friend of the 13th Dalai Lama. Amongst other omens, the head of the embalmed body of the thirteenth Dalai Lama, at first facing south-east, had turned to face the north-east, indicating, it was interpreted, the direction in which his successor would be found. The RegentReting Rinpoche, shortly afterwards had a vision at the sacred lake of Lhamo La-tso which he interpreted as Amdo being the region to search. This vision was also interpreted to refer to a large monastery with a gilded roof and turquoise tiles, and a twisting path from there to a hill to the east, opposite which stood a small house with distinctive eaves. The team, led by Kewtsang Rinpoche, went first to meet the Panchen Lama, who had been stuck in Jyekundo, in northern Kham.[43] The Panchen Lama had been investigating births of unusual children in the area ever since the death of the 13th Dalai Lama.[44] He gave Kewtsang the names of three boys whom he had discovered and identified as candidates. Within a year the Panchen Lama had died. Two of his three candidates were crossed off the list but the third, a “fearless” child, the most promising, was from Taktser village, which, as in the vision, was on a hill, at the end of a trail leading to Taktser from the great Kumbum Monastery with its gilded, turquoise roof. There they found a house, as interpreted from the vision—the house where Lhamo Dhondup lived.[43][44]

The 14th Dalai Lama claims that at the time, the village of Taktser stood right on the “real border” between the region of Amdo and China.[45] According to the search lore, when the team visited, posing as pilgrims, its leader, a Sera Lama, pretended to be the servant and sat separately in the kitchen. He held an old mala that had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama, and the boy Lhamo Dhondup, aged two, approached and asked for it. The monk said “if you know who I am, you can have it.” The child said “Sera Lama, Sera Lama” and spoke with him in a Lhasa accent, in a dialect the boy’s mother could not understand. The next time the party returned to the house, they revealed their real purpose and asked permission to subject the boy to certain tests. One test consisted of showing him various pairs of objects, one of which had belonged to the 13th Dalai Lama and one which had not. In every case, he chose the Dalai Lama’s own objects and rejected the others.[46]House where the 14th Dalai Lama was born in TaktserAmdo

From 1936 the Hui ‘Ma Clique‘ Muslim warlord Ma Bufang ruled Qinghai as its governor under the nominal authority of the Republic of China central government.[47] According to an interview with the 14th Dalai Lama, in the 1930s, Ma Bufang had seized this north-east corner of Amdo in the name of Chiang Kai-shek‘s weak government and incorporated it into the Chinese province of Qinghai.[48] Before going to Taktser, Kewtsang had gone to Ma Bufang to pay his respects.[44] When Ma Bufang heard a candidate had been found in Taktser, he had the family brought to him in Xining.[49] He first demanded proof that the boy was the Dalai Lama, but the Lhasa government, though informed by Kewtsang that this was the one, told Kewtsang to say he had to go to Lhasa for further tests with other candidates. They knew that if he was declared to be the Dalai Lama, the Chinese government would insist on sending a large army escort with him, which would then stay in Lhasa and refuse to budge.[50] Ma Bufang, together with Kumbum Monastery, then refused to allow him to depart unless he was declared to be the Dalai Lama, but withdrew this demand in return for 100,000 Chinese dollars ransom in silver to be shared amongst them, to let them go to Lhasa.[50][51] Kewtsang managed to raise this, but the family was only allowed to move from Xining to Kumbum when a further demand was made for another 330,000 dollars ransom: one hundred thousand each for government officials, the commander-in-chief, and the Kumbum Monastery; twenty thousand for the escort; and only ten thousand for Ma Bufang himself, he said.[52]

Two years of diplomatic wrangling followed before it was accepted by Lhasa that the ransom had to be paid to avoid the Chinese getting involved and escorting him to Lhasa with a large army.[53] Meanwhile, the boy was kept at Kumbum where two of his brothers were already studying as monks and recognised incarnate lamas.[54] The payment of 300,000 silver dollars was then advanced by Muslim traders en route to Mecca in a large caravan via Lhasa. They paid Ma Bufang on behalf of the Tibetan government against promissory notes to be redeemed, with interest, in Lhasa.[54][55] The 20,000-dollar fee for an escort was dropped, since the Muslim merchants invited them to join their caravan for protection; Ma Bufang sent 20 of his soldiers with them and was paid from both sides since the Chinese government granted him another 50,000 dollars for the expenses of the journey. Furthermore, the Indian government helped the Tibetans raise the ransom funds by affording them import concessions.[55]

Released from Kumbum, on 21 July 1939 the party travelled across Tibet on a journey to Lhasa in the large Muslim caravan with Lhamo Dhondup, now 4 years old, riding with his brother Lobsang in a special palanquin carried by two mules, two years after being discovered. As soon as they were out of Ma Bufang’s area, he was officially declared to be the 14th Dalai Lama by the Central Government of Tibet, and after ten weeks of travel he arrived in Lhasa on 8 October 1939.[56] The ordination (pabbajja) and giving of the monastic name of Tenzin Gyatso were handled by Reting Rinpoche. There was very limited Chinese involvement at this time.[57]

Tibetan Buddhists normally refer to him as Yishin Norbu (Wish-Fulfilling Gem), Kyabgon (Saviour), or just Kundun (Presence). His devotees, as well as much of the Western world, often call him His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the style employed on the Dalai Lama’s website. According to the Dalai Lama, he had a succession of tutors in Tibet including Reting Rinpoche, Tathag Rinpoche, Ling Rinpoche and lastly Trijang Rinpoche, who became junior tutor when he was nineteen.[58] At the age of 11 he met the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer, who became his videographer and tutor about the world outside Lhasa. The two remained friends until Harrer’s death in 2006.[59]

In 1959, at the age of 23, he took his final examination at Lhasa‘s Jokhang Temple during the annual Monlam or Prayer Festival.[d] He passed with honours and was awarded the Lharampa degree, the highest-level geshe degree, roughly equivalent to a doctorate in Buddhist philosophy.[61][62]

Life as the Dalai Lama[edit source]

See also: Dalai LamaLhasa’s Potala Palace, today a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site, pictured in 2019

Historically the Dalai Lamas or their regents held political and religious leadership over Tibet from Lhasa with varying degrees of influence depending on the regions of Tibet and periods of history. This began with the 5th Dalai Lama‘s rule in 1642 and lasted until the 1950s (except for 1705–1750), during which period the Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government or Ganden Phodrang. Until 1912 however, when the 13th Dalai Lama declared the complete independence of Tibet, their rule was generally subject to patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings (1642–1720) and then the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1720–1912).[63]

During the Dalai Lama’s recognition process, the cultural Anthropologist Goldstein writes:

everything the Tibetans did during the selection process was designed to prevent China from playing any role.[15][64]

Afterwards in 1939, at the age of four, the Dalai Lama was taken in a procession of lamas to Lhasa. The traditional ceremony enthroning the 14th Dalai Lama was attended by observing foreign dignitaries after a traditional Tibetan recognition processes. Sir Basil Gould, the British representative of the Government of India, has left a highly detailed account of the ceremonies surrounding the enthronement of the 14th Dalai Lama in Chapter 16 of his memoir, The Jewel in the Lotus.[65] Despite historical records of eyewitness accounts, China’s Kuomintang government later presented false claims to have ratified the Dalai Lama, and that a Kuomintang representative, General Wu Zhongxin, presided over the ceremony.

Gould disputes the Chinese claim to have presided over it. He criticised the Chinese account as follows:

The report was issued in the Chinese Press that Mr Wu had escorted the Dalai Lama to his throne and announced his installation, that the Dalai Lama had returned thanks, and prostrated himself in token of his gratitude. Every one of these Chinese claims was false. Mr Wu was merely a passive spectator. He did no more than present a ceremonial scarf, as was done by the others, including the British Representative. But the Chinese have the ear of the world, and can later refer to their press records and present an account of historical events that is wholly untrue. Tibet has no newspapers, either in English or Tibetan, and has therefore no means of exposing these falsehoods.[66]

Territorial extent of Tibet and approximate line of the Chinese Communist advance in 1950

Tibetan scholar Nyima Gyaincain wrote that based on Tibetan tradition, there was no such thing as presiding over an event, and wrote that the word “主持 (preside or organize)” was used in many places in communication documents. The meaning of the word was different than what we understand today. He added that Wu Zhongxin spent a lot of time and energy on the event, his effect of presiding over or organizing the event was very obvious.[clarification needed][67]

After his enthronement, the Dalai Lama’s childhood was then spent between the Potala Palace and Norbulingka, his summer residence, both of which are now UNESCO World Heritage sites.

Chiang Kai Shek ordered Ma Bufang to put his Muslim soldiers on alert for an invasion of Tibet in 1942.[68] Ma Bufang complied, and moved several thousand troops to the border with Tibet.[69] Chiang also threatened the Tibetans with aerial bombardment if they worked with the Japanese. Ma Bufang attacked the Tibetan Buddhist Tsang monastery in 1941.[70] He also constantly attacked the Labrang monastery.[71]

In October 1950 the army of the People’s Republic of China marched to the edge of the Dalai Lama’s territory and sent a delegation after defeating a legion of the Tibetan army in warlord-controlled Kham. On 17 November 1950, at the age of 15, the 14th Dalai Lama assumed full temporal (political) power as ruler of Tibet.[14]

Cooperation and conflicts with the People’s Republic of China[edit source]

An iconic photo showing Panchen Lama (left), Mao and Dalai Lama (right) at Qinzheng Hall on 11 September 1954, four days before they attended the 1st National People’s Congress.Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama to celebrate Tibetan New Year, 1955Rare shot of an adult Dalai Lama (right) and Panchen Lama (left) without eyeglasses. 1954–1955.

The Panchen Lama and Dalai Lama had many conflicts throughout Tibetan history. Dalai Lama’s formal rule was brief. He sent a delegation to Beijing, which ratified the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet. He would later claim that the delegation did so without his authorization.[62][72][73] He worked with the Chinese government: in September 1954, together with the 10th Panchen Lama he went to the Chinese capital to meet Mao Zedong and attend the first session of the National People’s Congress as a delegate, primarily discussing China’s constitution.[74][75] On 27 September 1954, the Dalai Lama was selected as a Vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress,[76][77] a post he officially held until 1964.[78]

In 1956, on a trip to India to celebrate the Buddha’s Birthday, the Dalai Lama asked the Prime Minister of IndiaJawaharlal Nehru, if he would allow him political asylum should he choose to stay. Nehru discouraged this as a provocation against peace, and reminded him of the Indian Government’s non-interventionist stance agreed upon with its 1954 treaty with China.[62]

Long called a “splitist” and “traitor” by China,[79] the Dalai Lama has attempted formal talks over Tibet’s status in China.[80] In 2019, after the United States passed a law requiring the US to deny visas to Chinese officials in charge of implementing policies that restrict foreign access to Tibet, the US Ambassador to China “encouraged the Chinese government to engage in substantive dialogue with the Dalai Lama or his representatives, without preconditions, to seek a settlement that resolves differences”.[81]

The Chinese Foreign Ministry has warned the US and other countries to “shun” the Dalai Lama during visits and often uses trade negotiations and human rights talks as an incentive to do so.[82][83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90] China sporadically bans images of the Dalai Lama and arrests citizens for owning photos of him in Tibet.[91][92][93] Tibet Autonomous Region government job candidates must strongly denounce the Dalai Lama, as announced on the Tibet Autonomous Region government’s online education platform, “Support the (Communist) Party’s leadership, resolutely implement the [Chinese Communist] Party’s line, line of approach, policies, and the guiding ideology of Tibet work in the new era; align ideologically, politically, and in action with the Party Central Committee; oppose any splittist tendencies; expose and criticize the Dalai Lama; safeguard the unity of the motherland and ethnic unity and take a firm stand on political issues, taking a clear and distinct stand”.[94]

The Dalai Lama is a target of Chinese state sponsored hacking. Security experts claim “targeting Tibetan activists is a strong indicator of official Chinese government involvement” since economic information is the primary goal of private Chinese hackers.[95] In 2009 the personal office of the Dalai Lama asked researchers at the Munk Center for International Studies at the University of Toronto to check its computers for malicious software. This led to uncovering GhostNet, a large-scale cyber spying operation which infiltrated at least 1,295 computers in 103 countries, including embassies, foreign ministries, other government offices, and organizations affiliated with the Dalai Lama in India, Brussels, London and New York, and believed to be focusing on the governments of South and Southeast Asia.[96][97][98] A second cyberspy network, Shadow Network, was discovered by the same researchers in 2010. Stolen documents included a years worth of the Dalai Lama’s personal email, and classified government material relating to Indian, West Africa, the Russian Federation, the Middle East, and NATO. “Sophisticated” hackers were linked to universities in China, Beijing again denied involvement.[99][100] Chinese hackers posing as The New York TimesAmnesty International and other organization’s reporters targeted the private office of the Dalai Lama, Tibetan Parliament members, and Tibetan nongovernmental organizations, among others, in 2019.[101]

Exile to India[edit source]

Abandoned former quarters of the Dalai Lama at the Potala. The empty vestment placed on the throne symbolises his absenceIn 1967, Dalai Lama was out of India for the first time since he resided there from 1959. The Japanese government granted him visa on the condition he would not attack PRC while in Japan.[102]

At the outset of the 1959 Tibetan uprising, fearing for his life, the Dalai Lama and his retinue fled Tibet with the help of the CIA‘s Special Activities Division,[103] crossing into India on 30 March 1959, reaching Tezpur in Assam on 18 April.[104] Some time later he set up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamshala, India,[105] which is often referred to as “Little Lhasa“. After the founding of the government in exile he re-established the approximately 80,000 Tibetan refugees who followed him into exile in agricultural settlements.[61] He created a Tibetan educational system in order to teach the Tibetan children the languagehistoryreligion, and culture. The Tibetan Institute of Performing Arts was established[61] in 1959 and the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies[61] became the primary university for Tibetans in India in 1967. He supported the refounding of 200 monasteries and nunneries in an attempt to preserve Tibetan Buddhist teachings and the Tibetan way of life.

The Dalai Lama appealed to the United Nations on the rights of Tibetans. This appeal resulted in three resolutions adopted by the General Assembly in 1959, 1961, and 1965,[61] all before the People’s Republic was allowed representation at the United Nations.[106] The resolutions called on China to respect the human rights of Tibetans.[61] In 1963, he promulgated a democratic constitution which is based upon the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, creating an elected parliament and an administration to champion his cause. In 1970, he opened the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamshala which houses over 80,000 manuscripts and important knowledge resources related to Tibetan history, politics and culture. It is considered one of the most important institutions for Tibetology in the world.[107]

In 2016, there were demands from Indian citizens and politicians of different political parties to confer the Dalai Lama the prestigious Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honour of India, which has only been awarded to a non-Indian citizen twice in its history.[108]

In 2021, it was revealed that the Dalai Lama’s inner circle were listed in the Pegasus project data as having been targeted with spyware on their phones. Analysis strongly indicates potential targets were selected by the Indian government.[109][110]

International advocacy[edit source]

The flag of Tibet (designed by the 13th Dalai Lama) shares the stage with Kundun on 10 April 2010 in Zurich, Switzerland

At the Congressional Human Rights Caucus in 1987 in Washington, D.C., the Dalai Lama gave a speech outlining his ideas for the future status of Tibet. The plan called for Tibet to become a democratic “zone of peace” without nuclear weapons, and with support for human rights.[citation needed] The plan would come to be known as the “Strasbourg proposal”, because the Dalai Lama expanded on the plan at Strasbourg on 15 June 1988. There, he proposed the creation of a self-governing Tibet “in association with the People’s Republic of China.” This would have been pursued by negotiations with the PRC government, but the plan was rejected by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile in 1991.[citation needed] The Dalai Lama has indicated that he wishes to return to Tibet only if the People’s Republic of China agrees not to make any precondition for his return.[111] In the 1970s, the Paramount leader Deng Xiaoping set China’s sole return requirement to the Dalai Lama as that he “must [come back] as a Chinese citizen … that is, patriotism”.[112]

The Dalai Lama celebrated his seventieth birthday on 6 July 2005. About 10,000 Tibetan refugees, monks and foreign tourists gathered outside his home. Patriarch Alexius II of the Russian Orthodox Church alleged positive relations with Buddhists. However, later that year, the Russian state prevented the Dalai Lama from fulfilling an invitation to the traditionally Buddhist republic of Kalmykia.[113] The President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Chen Shui-bian, attended an evening celebrating the Dalai Lama’s birthday at the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall in Taipei.[114] In October 2008 in Japan, the Dalai Lama addressed the 2008 Tibetan violence that had erupted and that the Chinese government accused him of fomenting. He responded that he had “lost faith” in efforts to negotiate with the Chinese government, and that it was “up to the Tibetan people” to decide what to do.[115]

Thirty Taiwanese indigenous peoples protested against the Dalai Lama during his visit to Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot and denounced it as politically motivated.[116][117][118][119]

The Dalai Lama is an advocate for a world free of nuclear weapons, and currently serves on the Advisory Council of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation.

The Dalai Lama has voiced his support for the Campaign for the Establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, an organisation which campaigns for democratic reformation of the United Nations, and the creation of a more accountable international political system.[120] 

Teaching activities, public talks[edit source]

Gyatso during a visit to Washington, D.C. in 1997Gyatso giving teachings at SissuLahaul

Despite becoming 80 years old in 2015, he maintains a busy international lecture and teaching schedule.[121] His public talks and teachings are usually webcast live in multiple languages, via an inviting organisation’s website, or on the Dalai Lama’s own website. Scores of his past teaching videos can be viewed there, as well as public talksconferencesinterviewsdialogues and panel discussions.[122]

The Dalai Lama’s best known teaching subject is the Kalachakra tantra which, as of 2014, he had conferred a total of 33 times,[123] most often in India’s upper Himalayan regions but also in the Western world.[124] The Kalachakra (Wheel of Time) is one of the most complex teachings of Buddhism, sometimes taking two weeks to confer, and he often confers it on very large audiences, up to 200,000 students and disciples at a time.[124][125]

The Dalai Lama is the author of numerous books on Buddhism,[126] many of them on general Buddhist subjects but also including books on particular topics like Dzogchen,[127] a Nyingma practice.

In his essay “The Ethic of Compassion” (1999), the Dalai Lama expresses his belief that if we only reserve compassion for those that we love, we are ignoring the responsibility of sharing these characteristics of respect and empathy with those we do not have relationships with, which cannot allow us to “cultivate love.” He elaborates upon this idea by writing that although it takes time to develop a higher level of compassion, eventually we will recognize that the quality of empathy will become a part of life and promote our quality as humans and inner strength.[128]

He frequently accepts requests from students to visit various countries worldwide in order to give teachings to large Buddhist audiences, teachings that are usually based on classical Buddhist texts and commentaries,[129] and most often those written by the 17 pandits or great masters of the Nalanda tradition, such as Nagarjuna,[130][131] Kamalashila,[132][133] Shantideva,[134] Atisha,[135] Aryadeva[136] and so on.The Dalai Lama’s main teaching room at DharamshalaDalai Lama conferring Kalachakra initiation at Bodh Gaya, India, December 1985Overview of teaching venue at Bodh Gaya Kalachakra, 1985

The Dalai Lama refers to himself as a follower of these Nalanda masters,[137] in fact he often asserts that ‘Tibetan Buddhism’ is based on the Buddhist tradition of Nalanda monastery in ancient India,[138] since the texts written by those 17 Nalanda pandits or masters, to whom he has composed a poem of invocation,[139] were brought to Tibet and translated into Tibetan when Buddhism was first established there and have remained central to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism ever since.[140]

As examples of other teachings, in London in 1984 he was invited to give teachings on the Twelve Links of Dependent Arising, and on Dzogchen, which he gave at Camden Town Hall; in 1988 he was in London once more to give a series of lectures on Tibetan Buddhism in general, called ‘A Survey of the Paths of Tibetan Buddhism’.[141] Again in London in 1996 he taught the Four Noble Truths, the basis and foundation of Buddhism accepted by all Buddhists, at the combined invitation of 27 different Buddhist organisations of all schools and traditions belonging to the Network of Buddhist Organisations UK.[142]

In India, the Dalai Lama gives religious teachings and talks in Dharamsala[135] and numerous other locations including the monasteries in the Tibetan refugee settlements,[129] in response to specific requests from Tibetan monastic institutions, Indian academic, religious and business associations, groups of students and individual/private/lay devotees.[143] In India, no fees are charged to attend these teachings since costs are covered by requesting sponsors.[129] When he travels abroad to give teachings there is usually a ticket fee calculated by the inviting organization to cover the costs involved[129] and any surplus is normally to be donated to recognised charities.[144]

He has frequently visited and lectured at colleges and universities,[145][146][147] some of which have conferred honorary degrees upon him.[148][149]

Dozens of videos of recorded webcasts of the Dalai Lama’s public talks on general subjects for non-Buddhists like peace, happiness and compassion, modern ethics, the environment, economic and social issues, gender, the empowerment of women and so forth can be viewed in his office’s archive.[150]

Interfaith dialogue[edit source]

The Dalai Lama met Pope Paul VI at the Vatican in 1973. He met Pope John Paul II in 1980, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1990, and 2003. In 1990, he met a delegation of Jewish teachers in Dharamshala for an extensive interfaith dialogue.[151] He has since visited Israel three times, and in 2006 met the Chief Rabbi of Israel. In 2006, he met Pope Benedict XVI privately. He has met the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Robert Runcie, and other leaders of the Anglican Church in London, Gordon B. Hinckley, who at the time was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), as well as senior Eastern Orthodox ChurchMuslimHinduJewish, and Sikh officials. The Dalai Lama is also currently a member of the Board of World Religious Leaders as part of The Elijah Interfaith Institute[152] and participated in the Third Meeting of the Board of World Religious Leaders in Amritsar, India, on 26 November 2007 to discuss the topic of Love and Forgiveness.[153]

In 2009, the Dalai Lama inaugurated an interfaith “World Religions-Dialogue and Symphony” conference at Gujarat‘s Mahuva religions, according to Morari Bapu.[154][155]

In 2010, the Dalai Lama, joined by a panel of scholars, launched the Common Ground Project,[156] in Bloomington, Indiana (USA),[157] which was planned by himself and Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad of Jordan during several years of personal conversations. The project is based on the book Common Ground between Islam and Buddhism.[158]

In 2019, the Dalai Lama fully-sponsored the first-ever ‘Celebrating Diversity in the Muslim World’ conference in New Delhi on behalf of the Muslims of Ladakh.[159]

Interest in science, and Mind and Life Institute[edit source]

Remains of Dalai Lama’s Baby Austin car. Lhasa, 1993Remains of Dalai Lama’s Dodge car. Lhasa, 1993

The Dalai Lama’s lifelong interest in science[160][161] and technology[162] dates from his childhood in Lhasa, Tibet, when he was fascinated by mechanical objects like clocks, watches, telescopes, film projectors, clockwork soldiers[162] and motor cars,[163] and loved to repair, disassemble and reassemble them.[160] Once, observing the Moon through a telescope as a child, he realised it was a crater-pocked lump of rock and not a heavenly body emitting its own light as Tibetan cosmologists had taught him.[160] He has also said that had he not been brought up as a monk he would probably have been an engineer.[164] On his first trip to the west in 1973 he asked to visit Cambridge University‘s astrophysics department in the UK and he sought out renowned scientists such as Sir Karl PopperDavid Bohm and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker,[163] who taught him the basics of science.

The Dalai Lama sees important common ground between science and Buddhism in having the same approach to challenge dogma on the basis of empirical evidence that comes from observation and analysis of phenomena.[165]

His growing wish to develop meaningful scientific dialogue to explore the Buddhism and science interface led to invitations for him to attend relevant conferences on his visits to the west, including the Alpbach Symposia on Consciousness in 1983 where he met and had discussions with the late Chilean neuroscientist Francisco J. Varela.[163] Also in 1983, the American social entrepreneur and innovator R. Adam Engle,[166] who had become aware of the Dalai Lama’s deep interest in science, was already considering the idea of facilitating for him a serious dialogue with a selection of appropriate scientists.[167] In 1984 Engle formally offered to the Dalai Lama’s office to organise a week-long, formal dialogue for him with a suitable team of scientists, provided that the Dalai Lama would wish to fully participate in such a dialogue. Within 48 hours the Dalai Lama confirmed to Engle that he was “truly interested in participating in something substantial about science” so Engle proceeded with launching the project.[168] Francisco Varela, having heard about Engle’s proposal, then called him to tell him of his earlier discussions with the Dalai Lama and to offer his scientific collaboration to the project.[168] Engle accepted, and Varela assisted him to assemble his team of six specialist scientists for the first ‘Mind and Life’ dialogue on the cognitive sciences,[169] which was eventually held with the Dalai Lama at his residence in Dharamsala in 1987.[163][168] This five-day event was so successful that at the end the Dalai Lama told Engle he would very much like to repeat it again in the future.[170] Engle then started work on arranging a second dialogue, this time with neuroscientists in California, and the discussions from the first event were edited and published as Mind and Life’s first book, “Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on the Sciences of Mind”.[171]

As Mind and Life Institute‘s remit expanded, Engle formalised the organisation as a non-profit foundation after the third dialogue, held in 1990, which initiated the undertaking of neurobiological research programmes in the United States under scientific conditions.[170] Over the following decades, as of 2014 at least 28 dialogues between the Dalai Lama and panels of various world-renowned scientists have followed, held in various countries and covering diverse themes, from the nature of consciousness to cosmology and from quantum mechanics to the neuroplasticity of the brain.[172] Sponsors and partners in these dialogues have included the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,[173] Johns Hopkins University,[174] the Mayo Clinic,[175] and Zurich University.[176]

Apart from time spent teaching Buddhism and fulfilling responsibilities to his Tibetan followers, the Dalai Lama has probably spent, and continues to spend, more of his time and resources investigating the interface between Buddhism and science through the ongoing series of Mind and Life dialogues and its spin-offs than on any other single activity.[162] As the institute’s Cofounder and the Honorary chairman he has personally presided over and participated in all its dialogues, which continue to expand worldwide.[177]

These activities have given rise to dozens of DVD sets of the dialogues and books he has authored on them such as Ethics for the New Millennium and The Universe in a Single Atom, as well as scientific papers and university research programmes.[178] On the Tibetan and Buddhist side, science subjects have been added to the curriculum for Tibetan monastic educational institutions and scholarship.[179] On the Western side, university and research programmes initiated by these dialogues and funded with millions of dollars in grants from the Dalai Lama Trust include the Emory-Tibet Partnership,[180] Stanford School of Medicine‘s Centre for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education (CCARES)[181] and the Centre for Investigating Healthy Minds,[182] amongst others.

In 2019, Emory University’s Center for Contemplative Sciences and Compassion-Based Ethics, in partnership with The Dalai Lama Trust and the Vana Foundation of India, launched an international SEE Learning (Social, Emotional and Ethical Learning) program in New Delhi, India, a school curriculum for all classes from kindergarten to Std XII that builds on psychologist Daniel Goleman‘s work on emotional intelligence in the early 1990s. SEE learning focuses on developing critical thinking, ethical reasoning and compassion and stresses on commonalities rather than on the differences.[183][184][185][186]

In particular, the Mind and Life Education Humanities & Social Sciences initiatives have been instrumental in developing the emerging field of Contemplative Science, by researching, for example, the effects of contemplative practice on the human brain, behaviour and biology.[178]

In his 2005 book The Universe in a Single Atom and elsewhere, and to mark his commitment to scientific truth and its ultimate ascendancy over religious belief, unusually for a major religious leader the Dalai Lama advises his Buddhist followers: “If scientific analysis were conclusively to demonstrate certain claims in Buddhism to be false, then we must accept the findings of science and abandon those claims.”[187] He has also cited examples of archaic Buddhist ideas he has abandoned himself on this basis.[160][188]

These activities have even had an impact in the Chinese capital. In 2013 an ‘academic dialogue’ with a Chinese scientist, a Tibetan ‘living Buddha’ and a Professor of Religion took place in Beijing. Entitled “High-end dialogue: ancient Buddhism and modern science” it addressed the same considerations that interest the Dalai Lama, described as ‘discussing about the similarities between Buddhism and modern science’.[189]

Personal meditation practice[edit source]

The Dalai Lama uses various meditation techniques, including analytic meditation.[190] He has said that the aim of meditation is “to maintain a very full state of alertness and mindfulness, and then try to see the natural state of your consciousness.”[191]

Social stances[edit source]

Tibetan independence[edit source]

Despite initially advocating for Tibetan independence from 1961 to 1974, the Dalai Lama no longer supports it. Instead he advocates for more meaningful autonomy for Tibetans within the People’s Republic of China.[192] This approach is known as the “Middle Way”. In a speech at Kolkata in 2017, the Dalai Lama stated that Tibetans wanted to stay with China and they did not desire independence. He said that he believed that China after opening up, had changed 40 to 50 percent of what it was earlier, and that Tibetans wanted to get more development from China.[193] In October 2020, the Dalai Lama stated that he did not support Tibetan independence and hoped to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner. He said “I prefer the concept of a ‘republic’ in the People’s Republic of China. In the concept of republic, ethnic minorities are like Tibetans, The Mongols, Manchus, and Xinjiang Uyghurs, we can live in harmony”.[194]

Abortion[edit source]

The Dalai Lama has said that, from the perspective of the Buddhist precepts, abortion is an act of killing.[195] He has also clarified that in certain cases abortion could be considered ethically acceptable “if the unborn child will be retarded or if the birth will create serious problems for the parent”, which could only be determined on a case-by-case basis.[196]

Death penalty[edit source]

The Dalai Lama has repeatedly expressed his opposition to the death penalty, saying that it contradicts the Buddhist philosophy of non-violence and that it expresses anger, not compassion.[197] During a 2005 visit to Japan, a country which has the death penalty, the Dalai Lama called for the abolition of the death penalty and said in his address, “Criminals, people who commit crimes, usually society rejects these people. They are also part of society. Give them some form of punishment to say they were wrong, but show them they are part of society and can change. Show them compassion.”[198] The Dalai Lama has also praised U.S. states that have abolished the death penalty.[199]

Democracy, nonviolence, religious harmony, and Tibet’s relationship with India[edit source]

The Dalai Lama in Vienna, Austria, in 2012

The Dalai Lama says that he is active in spreading India’s message of nonviolence and religious harmony throughout the world. “I am the messenger of India’s ancient thoughts the world over.” He has said that democracy has deep roots in India. He says he considers India the master and Tibet its disciple, as great scholars went from India to Tibet to teach Buddhism. He has noted that millions of people lost their lives in violence and the economies of many countries were ruined due to conflicts in the 20th century. “Let the 21st century be a century of tolerance and dialogue.”[200]

The Dalai Lama has also critiqued proselytization and certain types of conversion, believing the practices to be contrary to the fundamental ideas of religious harmony and spiritual practice.[201][202][203][204] He has stated that “It’s very important that our religious traditions live in harmony with one another and I don’t think proselytizing contributes to this. Just as fighting and killing in the name of religion are very sad, it’s not appropriate to use religion as a ground or a means for defeating others.”[205] In particular, he has critiqued Christian approaches to conversion in Asia, stating that he has “come across situations where serving the people is a cover for proselytization.”[206] The Dalai Lama has labeled such practices counter to the “message of Christ” and has emphasized that such individuals “practice conversion like a kind of war against peoples and cultures.”[203] In a statement with Hindu religious leaders, he expressed that he opposes “conversions by any religious tradition using various methods of enticement.”[204]

In 1993, the Dalai Lama attended the World Conference on Human Rights and made a speech titled “Human Rights and Universal Responsibility”.[207]

In 2001, in response to a question from a Seattle schoolgirl, the Dalai Lama said that it is permissible to shoot someone in self-defense (if the person was “trying to kill you”) and he emphasized that the shot should not be fatal.[208]

In 2013, the Dalai Lama criticised Buddhist monks’ attacks on Muslims in Myanmar and rejected violence by Buddhists, saying: “Buddha always teaches us about forgiveness, tolerance, compassion. If from one corner of your mind, some emotion makes you want to hit, or want to kill, then please remember Buddha’s faith. … All problems must be solved through dialogue, through talk. The use of violence is outdated, and never solves problems.”[209] In May 2013, he said “Really, killing people in the name of religion is unthinkable, very sad.”[210] In May 2015, the Dalai Lama called on Myanmar’s Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi to do more to help the Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, said that he had urged Suu Kyi to address the Rohingyas’ plight in two previous private meetings and had been rebuffed.[211]

In 2017, after Chinese dissident and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo died of organ failure while in Chinese government custody, the Dalai Lama said he was “deeply saddened” and that he believed that Liu’s “unceasing efforts in the cause of freedom will bear fruit before long.”[212]

Diet and animal welfare[edit source]

People think of animals as if they were vegetables, and that is not right. We have to change the way people think about animals. I encourage the Tibetan people and all people to move toward a vegetarian diet that doesn’t cause suffering.— Dalai Lama[213]

The Dalai Lama advocates compassion for animals and frequently urges people to try vegetarianism or at least reduce their consumption of meat. In Tibet, where historically meat was the most common food, most monks historically have been omnivores, including the Dalai Lamas. The Fourteenth Dalai Lama was raised in a meat-eating family but converted to vegetarianism after arriving in India, where vegetables are much more easily available and vegetarianism is widespread.[214] He spent many years as a vegetarian, but after contracting hepatitis in India and suffering from weakness, his doctors told him to return to eating meat which he now does twice a week.[215] This attracted public attention when, during a visit to the White House, he was offered a vegetarian menu but declined by replying, as he is known to do on occasion when dining in the company of non-vegetarians, “I’m a Tibetan monk, not a vegetarian”.[216] His own home kitchen, however, is completely vegetarian.[217]

In 2009, the English singer Paul McCartney wrote a letter to the Dalai Lama inquiring why he was not a vegetarian. As McCartney later told The Guardian, “He wrote back very kindly, saying, ‘my doctors tell me that I must eat meat’. And I wrote back again, saying, you know, I don’t think that’s right. […] I think now he’s vegetarian most of the time. I think he’s now being told, the more he meets doctors from the west, that he can get his protein somewhere else. […] It just doesn’t seem right – the Dalai Lama, on the one hand, saying, ‘Hey guys, don’t harm sentient beings… Oh, and by the way, I’m having a steak.'”[218]

Economics and political stance[edit source]

The Dalai Lama has referred to himself as a Marxist and has articulated criticisms of capitalism.[219][220][221]

I am not only a socialist but also a bit leftist, a communist. In terms of social economy theory, I am a Marxist. I think I am farther to the left than the Chinese leaders. [Bursts out laughing.] They are capitalists.[219]

He reports hearing of communism when he was very young, but only in the context of the destruction of Communist Mongolia. It was only when he went on his trip to Beijing that he learned about Marxist theory from his interpreter Baba Phuntsog Wangyal.[222] At that time, he reports, “I was so attracted to Marxism, I even expressed my wish to become a Communist Party member”, citing his favorite concepts of self-sufficiency and equal distribution of wealth. He does not believe that China implemented “true Marxist policy”,[223] and thinks the historical communist states such as the Soviet Union “were far more concerned with their narrow national interests than with the Workers’ International“.[224] Moreover, he believes one flaw of historically “Marxist regimes” is that they place too much emphasis on destroying the ruling class, and not enough on compassion.[224] He finds Marxism superior to capitalism, believing the latter is only concerned with “how to make profits”, whereas the former has “moral ethics”.[225] Stating in 1993:

Of all the modern economic theories, the economic system of Marxism is founded on moral principles, while capitalism is concerned only with gain and profitability. Marxism is concerned with the distribution of wealth on an equal basis and the equitable utilisation of the means of production. It is also concerned with the fate of the working classes—that is, the majority—as well as with the fate of those who are underprivileged and in need, and Marxism cares about the victims of minority-imposed exploitation. For those reasons the system appeals to me, and it seems fair. I just recently read an article in a paper where His Holiness the Pope also pointed out some positive aspects of Marxism.[220][224]

Environment[edit source]

The Dalai Lama is outspoken in his concerns about environmental problems, frequently giving public talks on themes related to the environment. He has pointed out that many rivers in Asia originate in Tibet, and that the melting of Himalayan glaciers could affect the countries in which the rivers flow.[226] He acknowledged official Chinese laws against deforestation in Tibet, but lamented they can be ignored due to possible corruption.[227] He was quoted as saying “ecology should be part of our daily life”;[228] personally, he takes showers instead of baths, and turns lights off when he leaves a room.[226] Around 2005, he started campaigning for wildlife conservation, including by issuing a religious ruling against wearing tiger and leopard skins as garments.[229][230] The Dalai Lama supports the anti-whaling position in the whaling controversy, but has criticized the activities of groups such as the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society (which carries out acts of what it calls aggressive nonviolence against property).[231] Before the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference, he urged national leaders to put aside domestic concerns and take collective action against climate change.[232]

Sexuality[edit source]

The Dalai Lama’s stances on topics of sexuality have changed over time.

A monk since childhood, the Dalai Lama has said that sex offers fleeting satisfaction and leads to trouble later, while chastity offers a better life and “more independence, more freedom”.[233] He has said that problems arising from conjugal life sometimes even lead to suicide or murder.[234] He has asserted that all religions have the same view about adultery.[235]

In his discussions of the traditional Buddhist view on appropriate sexual behavior, he explains the concept of “right organ in the right object at the right time”, which historically has been interpreted as indicating that oral, manual and anal sex (both homosexual and heterosexual) are not appropriate in Buddhism or for Buddhists. However, he also says that in modern times all common, consensual sexual practices that do not cause harm to others are ethically acceptable and that society should accept and respect people who are gay or transgender from a secular point of view.[236] In a 1994 interview with OUT Magazine, the Dalai Lama clarified his personal opinion on the matter by saying, “If someone comes to me and asks whether homosexuality is okay or not, I will ask ‘What is your companion’s opinion?’ If you both agree, then I think I would say, ‘If two males or two females voluntarily agree to have mutual satisfaction without further implication of harming others, then it is okay.'”[237] However, when interviewed by Canadian TV news anchor Evan Solomon on CBC News: Sunday about whether homosexuality is acceptable in Buddhism, the Dalai Lama responded that “it is sexual misconduct”.[238]

In his 1996 book Beyond Dogma, he described a traditional Buddhist definition of an appropriate sexual act as follows: “A sexual act is deemed proper when the couples use the organs intended for sexual intercourse and nothing else … Homosexuality, whether it is between men or between women, is not improper in itself. What is improper is the use of organs already defined as inappropriate for sexual contact.”[239] He elaborated in 1997, conceding that the basis of that teaching was unknown to him. He also conveyed his own “willingness to consider the possibility that some of the teachings may be specific to a particular cultural and historic context”.[240]

In 2006, the Dalai Lama has expressed concern at “reports of violence and discrimination against” LGBT people and urged “respect, tolerance and the full recognition of human rights for all”.[241]

Women’s rights[edit source]

See also: Women in Buddhism and Criticism of Buddhism § Women in Buddhism

In 2007, he said that the next Dalai Lama could possibly be a woman: “If a woman reveals herself as more useful the lama could very well be reincarnated in this form.”[242]

In 2009, on gender equality and sexism, the Dalai Lama proclaimed at the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee: “I call myself a feminist. Isn’t that what you call someone who fights for women’s rights?” He also said that by nature, women are more compassionate “based on their biology and ability to nurture and birth children”. He called on women to “lead and create a more compassionate world”, citing the good works of nurses and mothers.[243]

At a 2014 appearance at the Tata Institute of Social Sciences in Mumbai, the Dalai Lama said, “Since women have been shown to be more sensitive to others’ suffering, their leadership may be more effective.”[244]

In 2015, he said in a BBC interview that if a female succeeded him, “that female must be attractive, otherwise it is not much use,” and when asked if he was joking, replied, “No. True!” He followed with a joke about his current success being due to his own appearance.[245]

Health[edit source]

In 2013, at the Culture of Compassion event in DerryNorthern Ireland, the Dalai Lama said that “Warm-heartedness is a key factor for healthy individuals, healthy families and healthy communities.”[246]

Response to COVID-19[edit source]

In a 2020 statement in Time magazine on the COVID-19 pandemic, the Dalai Lama said that the pandemic must be combated with compassion, empirical science, prayer, and the courage of healthcare workers. He emphasized “emotional disarmament” (seeing things with a clear and realistic perspective, without fear or rage) and wrote: “The outbreak of this terrible coronavirus has shown that what happens to one person can soon affect every other being. But it also reminds us that a compassionate or constructive act – whether working in hospitals or just observing social distancing – has the potential to help many.”[247][248]

Immigration[edit source]

In September 2018, speaking at a conference in MalmöSweden home to a large immigrant population, the Dalai Lama said “I think Europe belongs to the Europeans”, but also that Europe was “morally responsible” for helping “a refugee really facing danger against their life”. He stated that Europe has a responsibility to refugees to “receive them, help them, educate them”, but that they should aim to return to their places of origin and that “they ultimately should rebuild their own country”.[249][250]

Speaking to German reporters in 2016, the Dalai Lama said there are “too many” refugees in Europe, adding that “Europe, for example Germany, cannot become an Arab country.” He also said that “Germany is Germany”.[251][252]

Retirement and succession plans[edit source]

Main article: Succession of the 14th Dalai Lama

In May 2011, the Dalai Lama retired from the Central Tibetan Administration.[253]

In September 2011, the Dalai Lama issued the following statement concerning his succession and reincarnation:

When I am about ninety I will consult the high Lamas of the Tibetan Buddhist traditions, the Tibetan public, and other concerned people who follow Tibetan Buddhism, and re-evaluate whether the institution of the Dalai Lama should continue or not. On that basis we will take a decision. If it is decided that the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama should continue and there is a need for the Fifteenth Dalai Lama to be recognized, responsibility for doing so will primarily rest on the concerned officers of the Dalai Lama’s Gaden Phodrang Trust. They should consult the various heads of the Tibetan Buddhist traditions and the reliable oath-bound Dharma Protectors who are linked inseparably to the lineage of the Dalai Lamas. They should seek advice and direction from these concerned beings and carry out the procedures of search and recognition in accordance with past tradition. I shall leave clear written instructions about this. Bear in mind that, apart from the reincarnation recognized through such legitimate methods, no recognition or acceptance should be given to a candidate chosen for political ends by anyone, including those in the People’s Republic of China.[254][255]

In October 2011, the Dalai Lama repeated his statement in an interview with Canadian CTV News. He added that Chinese laws banning the selection of successors based on reincarnation will not impact his decisions. “Naturally my next life is entirely up to me. No one else. And also this is not a political matter”, he said in the interview. The Dalai Lama also added that he has not decided on whether he would reincarnate or be the last Dalai Lama.[256]

In an interview with the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag published on 7 September 2014 the Dalai Lama stated “the institution of the Dalai Lama has served its purpose”, and that “We had a Dalai Lama for almost five centuries. The 14th Dalai Lama now is very popular. Let us then finish with a popular Dalai Lama.”[257]

Gyatso has also expressed fear that the Chinese government would manipulate any reincarnation selection in order to choose a successor that would go along with their political goals.[258] In response the Chinese government implied that it would select another Dalai Lama regardless of his decision.[259]

CIA Tibetan program[edit source]

In October 1998, the Dalai Lama’s administration acknowledged that it received $1.7 million a year in the 1960s from the U.S. government through a Central Intelligence Agency program.[260] When asked by CIA officer John Kenneth Knaus in 1995 to comment on the CIA Tibetan program, the Dalai Lama replied that though it helped the morale of those resisting the Chinese, “thousands of lives were lost in the resistance” and further, that “the U.S. Government had involved itself in his country’s affairs not to help Tibet but only as a Cold War tactic to challenge the Chinese.”[261]

His administration’s reception of CIA funding has become one of the grounds for some state-run Chinese newspapers to discredit him along with the Tibetan independence movement.

In his autobiography Freedom in Exile, the Dalai Lama criticized the CIA again for supporting the Tibetan independence movement “not because they (the CIA) cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all communist governments“.[262]

In 1999, the Dalai Lama said that the CIA Tibetan program had been harmful for Tibet because it was primarily aimed at serving American interests, and “once the American policy toward China changed, they stopped their help.”[263]

Criticism[edit source]

Ties to India[edit source]

Stone Plaque at a plantation by Tenzin in Amaravathi

The Chinese press has criticized the Dalai Lama for his close ties with India. His 2010 remarks at the International Buddhist Conference in Gujarat saying that he was “Tibetan in appearance, but an Indian in spirituality” and referral to himself as a “son of India” in particular led the People’s Daily to opine, “Since the Dalai Lama deems himself an Indian rather than Chinese, then why is he entitled to represent the voice of the Tibetan people?”[264] Dhundup Gyalpo of the Tibet Sun replied that Tibetan religion could be traced back to Nalanda in India, and that Tibetans have no connection to Chinese “apart … from a handful of culinary dishes”.[265] The People’s Daily stressed the links between Chinese Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism had accused the Dalai Lama of “betraying southern Tibet to India”.[264] In 2008, the Dalai Lama said for the first time that the territory India claims and administers as part of Arunachal Pradesh is part of India, citing the disputed 1914 Simla Accord.[266]

Shugden controversy[edit source]

Main article: Dorje Shugden controversy

The Dorje Shugden Controversy reappeared in the Gelug school by the publication of the Yellow Book in 1976, containing stories about wrathful acts of Dorje Shugden against Gelugpas who also practiced Nyingma teachings. In response, the 14th Dalai Lama, a Gelugpa himself and advocate of an “inclusive” approach to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism,[267][268] started to speak out against the practice of Dorje Shugden in 1978.[269]

The controversy has attracted attention in the West because of demonstrations held in 2008 and 2014 by Dorje Shugden practitioners. A 2015 Reuters investigation determined “that the religious sect behind the protests has the backing of the Communist Party” and that the “group has emerged as an instrument in Beijing’s long campaign to undermine support for the Dalai Lama”.[270] After the Reuters investigation revealed that China backs it, the Shugden group halted operations and disbanded.[271]

Gedhun Choekyi Nyima[edit source]

In April 2018, the Dalai Lama confirmed the official Chinese claims about Gedhun Choekyi Nyima by saying that he knew from “reliable sources” that the Panchen Lama he had recognized was alive and receiving normal education. He said he hoped that the Chinese-recognised Panchen Lama (Gyaincain Norbu) studied well under the guidance of a good teacher, adding that there were instances in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, of a reincarnated lama taking more than one manifestation.[272][273]

Public image[edit source]

The Dalai Lama meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama in 2016Buddhist temple in Kalmykia, Russia

The Dalai Lama places highly in global surveys of the world’s most admired men, ranking with Pope Francis as among the world’s religious leaders cited as the most admired.[274][275]

The Dalai Lama’s appeal is variously ascribed to his charismatic personality, international fascination with Buddhism, his universalist values, and international sympathy for the Tibetans.[276] In the 1990s, many films were released by the American film industry about Tibet, including biopics of the Dalai Lama. This is attributed to both the Dalai Lama’s 1989 Nobel Peace Prize as well as to the euphoria following the Fall of Communism. The most notable films, Kundun and Seven Years in Tibet (both released in 1997), portrayed “an idyllic pre-1950 Tibet, with a smiling, soft-spoken Dalai Lama at the helm – a Dalai Lama sworn to non-violence“: portrayals the Chinese government decried as ahistorical.[277]

The Dalai Lama has his own pages on Twitter,[278] Facebook,[279] and Instagram.[280]The Dalai Lama meeting with Congressional leaders Nancy Pelosi and John Boehner in 2011

The Dalai Lama has tried to mobilize international support for Tibetan activities.[281] The Dalai Lama has been successful in gaining Western support for himself and the cause of greater Tibetan autonomy, including vocal support from numerous Hollywood celebrities, most notably the actors Richard Gere and Steven Seagal, as well as lawmakers from several major countries.[282] Photos of the Dalai Lama were banned after March 1959 Lhasa protests until after the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976. In 1996 the Chinese Communist Party once again reinstated the total prohibition of any photo of the 14th Dalai Lama. According to the Tibet Information Network, “authorities in Tibet have begun banning photographs of the exiled Dalai Lama in monasteries and public places, according to reports from a monitoring group and a Tibetan newspaper. Plainclothes police went to hotels and restaurants in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital, on 22 and 23 April and ordered Tibetans to remove pictures of the Dalai Lama …”[283] The ban continues in many locations throughout Tibet today.

In the media[edit source]

The 14th Dalai Lama has appeared in several non-fiction films including:

He has been depicted as a character in various other movies and television programs including:

The Dalai Lama was featured on 5 March 2017, episode of the HBO late-night talk show Last Week Tonight, in which host John Oliver conducted a comedic interview with the Dalai Lama, focusing on the topics of Tibetan sovereignty, Tibetan self-immolations, and his succession plans.[286][relevant?]

A biographical graphic novelMan of Peace, also envisaging the Dalai Lama’s return to Tibet, was published by Tibet House US.[287][288] The Extraordinary Life of His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama: An Illuminated Journey, illustrations and text by artist Rima Fujita, narrated by the Dalai Lama, was published by Simon and Schuster in 2021.[289]

Awards and honours[edit source]

The Congressional Gold Medal was awarded to Tenzin Gyatso in 2007The Dalai Lama receiving a Congressional Gold Medal in 2007. From left: Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, Senate President pro temporeRobert Byrd and U.S. President George W. Bush

The Dalai Lama has received numerous awards and honors worldwide over his spiritual and political career.[290][291][292] For a more complete list see Awards and honors presented to the 14th Dalai Lama.

After the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, the Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded him the 1989 Nobel Peace Prize.[293] The Committee officially gave the prize to the Dalai Lama for “the struggle of the liberation of Tibet and the efforts for a peaceful resolution”[294] and “in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi“.[295]

He has also been awarded the:

In 2006, he became one of only six people ever to be granted Honorary Citizenship of Canada. In 2007 he was named Presidential Distinguished Professor at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, the first time he accepted a university appointment.[303]

Publications[edit source]

Discography[edit source]

See also[edit source]

Notes[edit source]

  1. ^ US/ˈdɑːlaɪ ˈlɑːmə/UK/ˈdælaɪ ˈlɑːmə/
  2. ^ Tibetan: ལྷ་མོ་དོན་འགྲུབ།, WylieLha-mo Don-‘grubZYPYLhamo TönzhubLhasa dialect[ˈl̥ámo ˈtʰø̃ ̀ɖup]simplified Chinese: 拉莫顿珠; traditional Chinese: 拉莫頓珠; pinyinLāmò Dùnzhū
  3. ^ At the time of Tenzin Gyatso’s birth, Taktser was a town located in the Chinese province of Tsinghai (Qinghai) and was controlled by Ma Lin, a warlord allied with Chiang Kai-shek and appointed as governor of Qinghai Province by the Kuomintang.[27][28][29][30]
  4. ^ It has been noted that one of the examining debate partners of the 14th Dalai Lama was Kyabje Choden Rinpoche of Sera monastery (Jey College), who debated with him on the topic of the two truths doctrine (Wyliebden pa gnyis).[60]

Reference[edit source]

Citations[edit source]

  1. ^ From Article 31 of Charter of the Tibetans-in-exile 1991: “The Council of Regency shall exercise executive powers and authority in the following circumstances: (1)(a) of His Holiness the Dalai Lama has not assumed or retained the powers of the head of the Tibetan Administration and the executive functions therein;”
  2. ^ From chapter 5 of Constitution of Tibet(1963): “Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions, His Holiness the Dalai Lama as the Head of the State shall:”
  3. ^ 《国务院关于撤销达赖喇嘛·丹增嘉措职务的决定》(一九六四年十二月十七日国务院全体会议第一五一次会议通过): “西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员达赖喇嘛·丹增嘉措,一九五九年发动叛国的反革命武装叛乱。在逃往国外以后,组织流亡伪政府,公布伪宪法,支持印度反动派对我国的侵略,并积极组织和训练逃亡国外的残匪骚扰祖国边境。这一切都证明他早已自绝于祖国和人民,是一个死心塌地为帝国主义和外国反动派作走狗的叛国分子。国务院根据西藏地方人民的要求,决定撤销达赖喇嘛·丹增嘉措的西藏自治区筹备委员会主任委员和委员的职务。” On 17 December 1964, the 151st meeting of the plenary session of the State Council approved: The Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, chairman of the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee, launched a treasonous counter-revolutionary armed rebellion in 1959. After fleeing abroad, he organized a pseudo-government in exile, promulgated a pseudo-constitution, supported the Indian reactionaries’ aggression against our country, and actively organized and trained bandits who fled abroad to harass the motherland’s borders. All this proves that he has terminated himself from the motherland and the people, and he is a traitor who is desperately running for the imperialism and foreign reactionaries. The State Council decided to remove the Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso’s duties as chairman and member of the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee in accordance with the request of the local people in Tibet.
  4. Jump up to:a b “Brief Biography”DalaiLama.comArchived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  5. Jump up to:a b “A Brief Biography of His Holiness the Dalai Lama”fmpt.org. Archived from the original on 30 June 2020. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  6. ^ “His Holiness the Dalai Lama Speaks to Tibetan Students in Delhi”. Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. 26 January 2015. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  7. ^ “Chronology of Events”. Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  8. ^ Van Schaik, Sam (2011). Tibet: A HistoryYale University Press. p. 129ISBN 978-0-300-15404-7.
  9. ^ Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S., Jr. (2013). The Princeton dictionary of Buddhism. Archived 12 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine Princeton: Princeton University PressISBN 9781400848058. Entries on “Dalai Lama” and “Dga’ ldan pho brang”.
  10. ^ “Definition of Dalai Lama in English”. Oxford Dictionaries. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2015. The spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet
  11. ^ “Life in exile”britannica.comEncyclopaedia BritannicaArchived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  12. ^ Yardley, Jim; Wong, Edward (10 March 2011). “Dalai Lama Gives Up Political Role”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 31 March 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  13. ^ “About Central Tibetan Administration”tibet.netCentral Tibetan AdministrationArchived from the original on 14 March 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2021.
  14. Jump up to:a b c “Chronology of Events”The 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Office of the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  15. Jump up to:a b Goldstein, Melvyn C. (18 June 1991). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State. University of California Press. pp. 328ff. ISBN 978-0-520-91176-5Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  16. ^ “Report to Wu Zhongxin from the Regent Reting Rinpoche Regarding the Process of Searching and Recognizing the Thirteenth Dalai lama’s Reincarnated Soul Boy as well as the Request for an Exemption to Drawing Lots – – The Reincarnation of Living Buddhas”http://www.livingbuddha.us.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  17. ^ “The National Government’s Decree on the Special Approval of Recognizing Lhamo Thondup as the Fourteenth Dalai Lama with an Exemption of Drawing Lots and the Appropriation of the Expenditure for His Enthronement – – The Reincarnation of Living Buddhas”http://www.livingbuddha.us.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  18. ^ “Beijing: Dalai Lama’s Reincarnation Must Comply with Chinese Laws”Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  19. ^ van Pragg, Walt; C. Van, Michael (1 March 1988). “The Legal Status of Tibet”Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine (12–1). Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  20. ^ Davidson, Richard J.; Lutz, Antoine (1 January 2008). “Buddha’s Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation”IEEE Signal Process Magazine25 (1): 174–176. doi:10.1109/msp.2008.4431873PMC 2944261PMID 20871742.
  21. ^ Koch, Christof (1 July 2013). “Neuroscientists and the Dalai Lama Swap Insights on Meditation”. Scientific American. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  22. ^ Foley, Ryan J. (14 May 2010). “Scientist, Dalai Lama Share Research Effort”. NBC News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  23. ^ Sengupta, Ratnottama (28 September 2008). “Now, Hindus can’t head Mahabodhi Society”The Times of IndiaArchived from the original on 26 June 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  24. ^ “The Children of Gandhi” (excerpt). Time. 31 December 1999. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013.
  25. ^ “Congressional Gold Medal Recipients”history.house.gov. United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on 12 March 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  26. ^ Thondup, Gyalo; Thurston, Anne F. (2015). The Noodle Maker of Kalimpong: The Untold Story of My Struggle for TibetGurgaonRandom House Publishers India Private Limited. p. 20. ISBN 978-81-8400-387-1Lama Thubten named my new brother Lhamo Thondup.
  27. Jump up to:a b Thomas Laird, The Story of Tibet. Conversations with the Dalai LamaGrove Press: New York, 2006.
  28. ^ Li, T.T. Historical Status of TibetColumbia University Press, p. 179.
  29. ^ Bell, Charles, “Portrait of the Dalai Lama“, p. 399.
  30. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. Goldstein, A history of modern Tibet, pp. 315–317.
  31. ^ A 60-Point Commentary on the Chinese Government Publication: A Collection of Historical Archives of Tibet, DIIR Publications, Dharamsala, November 2008: “Chija Tagtser born holy precious child Lhamo Dhondup … the holy reincarnate child in Chija Tagtser.”
  32. ^ Stewart, Whitney (2000). The 14th Dalai Lama. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co. ISBN 0-8225-9691-1OCLC 44627126.
  33. ^ Craig, Mary (1998). Kundun : une biographie du Dalaï-Lama et de sa famille. Bstan-ʼdzin-rgya-mtsho, Dalai Lama XIV, 1935–, Vidonne, François. [S.l.]: Presses du Châtelet. ISBN 2-911217-33-0OCLC 40821251.
  34. ^ Gittings, John (7 September 2008). “Obituary:Thubten Jigme Norbu”The GuardianArchived from the original on 10 August 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  35. ^ Thomas Laird, The Story of Tibet: Conversations With the Dalai Lama Archived 1 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine, p. 262 (2007) “At that time in my village”, he said, “we spoke a broken Chinese. As a child, I spoke Chinese first, but it was a broken Xining language which was (a dialect of) the Chinese language.” “So your first language”, I responded, “was a broken Chinese regional dialect, which we might call Xining Chinese. It was not Tibetan. You learned Tibetan when you came to Lhasa.” “Yes”, he answered, “that is correct …”
  36. ^ The economist, Volume 390, Issues 8618–8624. Economist Newspaper Ltd. 2009. p. 144. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  37. ^ Politically incorrect tourism Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback MachineThe Economist, 26 February 2009: “When the Dalai Lama was born, the region, regarded by Tibetans as part of Amdo, a province of their historic homeland, was under the control of a Muslim warlord, Ma Bufang. The Dalai Lama and his family didn’t learn Tibetan until they moved to Lhasa in 1939.”
  38. ^ 管理喇嘛寺廟條例  [Regulations on the Management of Lama Temples] (in Chinese). 1935 – via Wikisource.
  39. ^ 廢 管理喇嘛寺廟條例 [Abolish the Regulations on Management of Lama Temples]. Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China. 11 June 1992. Archived from the original on 10 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  40. ^ 喇嘛轉世辦法  [Lama reincarnation method] (in Chinese). 1936 – via Wikisource.
  41. ^ 廢 喇嘛轉世辦法 [Abolish the method of reincarnation]. Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China. 20 February 1993. Archived from the original on 10 August 2021. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  42. ^ 去转生一族之私
  43. Jump up to:a b c Bell 1946, p. 397.
  44. Jump up to:a b c Laird 2006, p. 265.
  45. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 262–263.
  46. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 265–266.
  47. ^ Piper Rae Gaubatz (1996). Beyond the Great Wall: urban form and transformation on the Chinese frontiersStanford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-8047-2399-0Archived from the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  48. ^ Laird 2006, p. 262.
  49. ^ Mullin 2001, p. 459.
  50. Jump up to:a b Bell 1946, p. 398.
  51. ^ Richardson 1984, p. 152.
  52. ^ Bell 1946, pp. 398–399.
  53. ^ Richardson 1984, pp. 152–153.
  54. Jump up to:a b Laird 2006, p. 267.
  55. Jump up to:a b Richardson 1984, p. 153.
  56. ^ Laird 2006, pp. 268–269.
  57. ^ Banyan (19 March 2015). “The Golden Urn: Even China Accepts That Only the Dalai Lama Can Legitimise Its Rule in Tibet”The EconomistArchived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  58. ^ Lama, Dalai (1990). Freedom in Exile: The Autobiography of the Dalai Lama (1st ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 18ISBN 0-06-039116-2.
  59. ^ Peter Graves (host) (26 April 2005). Dalai Lama: Soul of TibetA&E Television Networks. Event occurs at 08:00.
  60. ^ “Debating with the Dalai Lama”Archived from the original on 12 October 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  61. Jump up to:a b c d e f “Profile: The Dalai Lama”BBC News. 25 February 2009. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
  62. Jump up to:a b c Cronin Marcello, Patricia (2003). The Dalai Lama: A Biography. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32207-5. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  63. ^ Smith, Warren W. Jr. (1997). Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. New Delhi: HarperCollins. pp. 107–149. ISBN 0-8133-3155-2.
  64. ^ Powers, John. The Buddha Party: How the People’s Republic of China Works to Define and Control Tibetan Buddhism.
  65. ^ Gould, B.J., The Jewel In The Lotus London: Chatto and Windus, 1957
  66. ^ Bell 1946, p. 400.
  67. ^ 王家伟; 尼玛坚赞 (1997). 中国西藏的历史地位 [Wang Jiawei; Nima Gyaltsen (1997). The historical position of Tibet in China. China Communication Publishing House]. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-7-80113-303-8Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  68. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting (2006). “War or Stratagem? Reassessing China’s Military Advance towards Tibet, 1942–1943”. The China Quarterly186: 446–462. doi:10.1017/S0305741006000233S2CID 154376402.
  69. ^ David P. Barrett; Lawrence N. Shyu (2001). China in the anti-Japanese War, 1937–1945: politics, culture and society. Peter Lang. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-8204-4556-4Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  70. ^ University of Cambridge. Mongolia & Inner Asia Studies Unit (2002). Inner Asia, Volume 4, Issues 1–2. The White Horse Press for the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge. p. 204. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  71. ^ Paul Kocot Nietupski (1999). Labrang: a Tibetan Buddhist monastery at the crossroads of four civilizations. Snow Lion Publications. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-55939-090-3Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  72. ^ Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV, interview, 25 July 1981.
  73. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, pp. 812–813.
  74. ^ Goldstein, M.C., A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2 – The Calm before the Storm: 1951–1955, p. 493.
  75. ^ Ngapoi recalls the founding of the TAR Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback MachineNgapoi Ngawang JigmeChina View, 30 August 2005.
  76. ^ Goldstein, M.C., A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2 – The Calm before the Storm: 1951–1955, p. 496.
  77. ^ “Chairman Mao: Long Live Dalai Lama!”. Voyage.typepad.com. 21 January 2007. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  78. ^ “Official: Dalai Lama’s U.S. award not to affect Tibet’s stability”17th National Congress of the Communist Party of ChinaPeople’s Daily. 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  79. ^ Burns, John F. (6 March 1996). “Dalai Lama Finds China’s Threats A Subject for Humor and Anxiety”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  80. ^ Baker, Peter; Pomfret, John (11 November 1998). “Dalai Lama Delays Plan for Formal Talks With China”The Washington PostArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  81. ^ Martina, Michael (25 May 2019). “U.S. ambassador urges China to talk to the Dalai Lama”. Reuters. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  82. ^ Williams, Carol J. (2 October 2014). “Nobel laureates cancel Cape Town summit after Dalai Lama denied visa”Los Angeles TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  83. ^ Blanchard, Ben (21 October 2017). “China says no excuses for foreign officials meeting Dalai Lama”ReutersArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  84. ^ Odell, Mark (12 March 2015). “How David Cameron lost, and then won, China”Financial TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  85. ^ Hilton, Isabel; Fenby, Jonathan; Barnett, Robert (23 October 2015). “Has Britain Sold Out to Beijing?”. Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  86. ^ Miglani, Sanjeev (29 March 2018). “Dalai Lama faces cold shoulder as India looks to improve China ties”. Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  87. ^ Stobdan, Phunchok (22 October 2019). “Dalai Lama is at the centre of a new great game in Himalayas between India, China & Tibet”. The Print. Printline Media. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  88. ^ “China Cancels Human Rights Talks With Germany”. Speigel. 15 October 2007. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  89. ^ Ramzy, Austin (15 June 2016). “Obama and Dalai Lama Meet Over China’s Objection”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  90. ^ Cowell, Alan (12 December 2014). “Pope Declines to Meet With Dalai Lama”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  91. ^ Wee, Sui-Lee (27 June 2013). “China’s ban on displaying Dalai Lama pictures is lifted”. Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  92. ^ Tenzin, Kunsang (29 July 2019). “Tibetans Beaten, Detained in Kardze Over Dalai Lama Photos”. Radio Free Asia. Archived from the original on 17 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  93. ^ “”Severe punishments” for Dalai Lama photos”. Free Tibet. 3 February 2016. Archived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  94. ^ Patranobis, Sutirtho (19 October 2019). “Tibetan graduates need to ‘expose and criticise Dalai Lama’ for Chinese government jobs”Hindustan TimesArchived from the original on 20 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  95. ^ Perlroth, Nicole (29 March 2012). “Case Based in China Puts a Face on Persistent Hacking”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  96. ^ Markoff, John (28 March 2009). “Vast Spy System Loots Computers in 103 Countries”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  97. ^ Markoff, John (11 May 2009). “Tracking Cyberspies Through the Web Wilderness”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  98. ^ “Major cyber spy network uncovered”BBC News. 29 March 2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  99. ^ Branigan, Tania (6 April 2010). “Cyber-spies based in China target Indian government and Dalai Lama”The GuardianArchived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  100. ^ Markoff, John; Barboza, David (5 April 2010). “Researchers Trace Data Theft to Intruders in China”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 23 October 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  101. ^ Perlroth, Nicole; Conger, Kate; Mozur, Paul (25 October 2019). “China Sharpens Hacking to Hound Its Minorities, Far and Wide”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  102. ^ “Dalai Lama opens exhibit of Tibetan art at Ueno”Stars and Stripes. 28 September 1967. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  103. ^ The CIA’s Secret War in Tibet, Kenneth Conboy, James Morrison, The University Press of Kansas, 2002.
  104. ^ Richardson (1984), p. 210.
  105. ^ “Witness: Reporting on the Dalai Lama’s escape to India.” Peter Jackson. Reuters. 27 February 2009.Witness: Reporting on the Dalai Lama’s escape to India| Reuters Archived 20 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  106. ^ “Events of 1971”Year in Review. United Press International. 1971. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  107. ^ “Library of Tibetan Works and Archives”Government of Tibet in Exile. 1997. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2008.
  108. ^ “Bharat Ratna demanded for Dalai Lama”The Times of IndiaArchived from the original on 9 January 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  109. ^ “Dalai Lama’s inner circle listed in Pegasus project data”TheGuardian.com. 22 July 2021. Archived from the original on 4 September 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  110. ^ “Dalai Lama’s inner circle listed in Pegasus project data”Archived from the original on 25 November 2021. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  111. ^ Interview Archived 11 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine with The Guardian, 5 September 2003
  112. ^ Yuxia, Jiang (1 March 2009). “Origin of the title of “Dalai Lama” and its related background”XinhuaArchived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  113. ^ Fagan, Geraldine. “Russia: How Many Missionaries Now Denied Visas’.” Forum 18 News Service. Vol. 7. 2005.
  114. ^ “China keeps up attacks on Dalai Lama”CNN. Archived from the original on 18 December 2006.
  115. ^ “Dalai Lama admits Tibet failure”Al Jazeera. 3 November 2008. Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  116. ^ AFP (31 August 2009). “Protesters accuse Dalai Lama of staging ‘political show’ in Taiwan”asiaone news. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  117. ^ Wang, Amber (31 August 2009). “Dalai Lama visits Taiwan typhoon victims”The Sydney Morning HeraldArchived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  118. ^ Staff Writers (31 August 2009). “Dalai Lama visits Taiwan typhoon victims amid Chinese anger”Terra Daily. Kaohsiung, Taiwan (AFP). Archived from the original on 11 February 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2015.
  119. ^ “Dalai Lama Visits Taiwan”The Wall Street Journal. 2 September 2009. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  120. ^ “Overview”Campaign for a UN Parliamentary AssemblyArchived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  121. ^ “Schedule”. Office of the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  122. ^ “Browse webcasts – Teachings”. Office of the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 9 December 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  123. ^ Kshipra Simon (21 July 2014). “His Holiness Dalai Lama leading the 33rd Kalachakra World Peace Prayer in Ladakh”. New Delhi, India: Demotix. Archived from the original (Photojournalism) on 3 July 2015.
  124. Jump up to:a b “Kalachakra Initiations by His Holiness the Dalai Lama”. Office of Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 14 December 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2015. List of
  125. ^ Antonia Blumberg (7 July 2014). “Dalai Lama Delivers Kalachakra Buddhist Teaching To Thousands of Devotees”HuffPostArchived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2020. Roughly 150,000 devotees reportedly converged for the event
  126. ^ The Dalai Lama. “Books (on Buddhism) by the Dalai Lama”. Various. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  127. ^ “Dzogchen: The Heart Essence of the Great Perfection”. Shambala Publications. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  128. ^ Dalai Lama XIV (1999). The Ethic of Compassion. Riverhead Books. pp. 123–31.
  129. Jump up to:a b c d “Schedule”. World-wide: Office of Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  130. ^ “His Holiness the Dalai Lama in Brisbane”. 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. The Dalai Lama’s Brisbane teaching will be based on the classic text, Nagarjuna’s ‘Precious Garland’
  131. ^ Donald S Lopez Jr. (24 April 2014). “Nagarjuna”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  132. ^ Jamyang Dorjee Chakrishar. “When Indian Pandit Kamalashila defeated China’s Hashang in Tibet”. Sherpa World. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  133. ^ “Dalai Lama teaching Kamalashila text in Australia, 2008”. Dalai Lama in Australia. 11 June 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2015. by reference to Kamalashila’s text, His Holiness the Dalai Lama will demonstrate how the nature of awareness, developed through meditative practices can be transformed into the direct perceptual wisdom necessary to achieve enlightenment itself
  134. ^ “Compassion in Emptiness: Dalai Lama Teaches Shantideva” (DVD set). Oscilloscope. 7 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2015. In 2010, His Holiness traveled to New York City to teach A Commentary on Bodhicitta by Nagarjuna and A Guide to the Bodhisattva’s Way of Life by Shantideva.
  135. Jump up to:a b Phuntsok Yangchen (1 October 2012). “Disciples from over 60 countries attend the Dalai Lama’s teachings”. Phayul.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015. The Dalai Lama today began his four-day teachings on Atisha’s [text] ‘Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment’
  136. ^ “The Dalai Lama’s Boston teachings”. Shambala Publications. 17 October 2012. Archived from the original on 21 May 2015. Texts mentioned by His Holiness in his talk … Aryadeva’s 400 Stanzas of the Middle Way
  137. ^ James Blumenthal, PhD (July 2012). “The Seventeen Pandits of Nalanda Monastery” (Online Magazine). FPMT. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015. he Dalai Lama frequently refers to himself as a follower of the lineage of the seventeen Nalanda masters today
  138. ^ “About the Seventeen Paṇḍitas of Nālandā”. Bodhimarga. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2015. they came to shape the very meaning of Buddhist philosophy and religious practice, both in India and Tibet
  139. ^ Dalai Lama (15 December 2001). “An invocation of the seventeen great sagely adepts of glorious Nalanda” (Poetry). Bhikshuni Thubten Chodron. Archived from the original on 8 January 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  140. ^ HT Correspondent (7 March 2015). “Tibetan language must to keep Nalanda tradition alive: Dalai Lama”Hindustan Times. Dharamsala. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015. The unique quality of Tibetan Buddhism is that it is based on ancient India’s Nalanda Buddhist tradition
  141. ^ “A Survey of the Paths of Tibetan Buddhism”. Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  142. ^ Tseten Samdup (7 July 1996). “His Holiness the Dalai Lama will visit the UK from July 15–22 1996”. World Tibet Network News. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015. For the first time in the West, His Holiness the Dalai Lama will give two exclusive days of teaching on 17 and 18 July 1996 on the Four Noble Truths – the heart of the Buddha’s teachings. This has been requested by The Network of Buddhist Organisations – a forum for dialogue and co-operation between Buddhist organisations in the UK.
  143. ^ “Teachings”. Office of Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 21 April 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015. His Holiness has also been giving teachings in India at the request of various Buddhist devotees from Taiwan and Korea
  144. ^ “ONLINE DONATION FACILITY IS AVAILABLE”. Dalai Lama in Australia. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015. Should there be any surplus funds from His Holiness’ events, that surplus will be disbursed to charitable organizations under the advisement of His Holiness the Dalai Lama
  145. ^ Michael Caddell (9 September 2014). “His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama to give public talk at Princeton University”. Princeton University. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  146. ^ “Dalai Lama Visits Colgate”. The Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
  147. ^ “Lehigh University: His Holiness the Dalai Lama”. .lehigh.edu. Archived from the original on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  148. ^ “The Dalai Lama”. umn.edu. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  149. ^ “His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama visits Macalester, speaks to over 3,500”. The Mac Weekly. 7 March 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  150. ^ “Public talks”. Office of the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original (Video) on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  151. ^ Kamenetz, Rodger (1994)The Jew in the Lotus Archived 13 December 2021 at the Wayback Machine Harper Collins: 1994.
  152. ^ “The Elijah Interfaith Institute – Buddhist Members of the Board of World Religious Leaders”. Elijah-interfaith.org. 24 December 2006. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  153. ^ “Third Meeting of the Board of World Religious Leaders”. Elijah-interfaith.org. 7 April 2013. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  154. ^ “Dalai Lama inaugurates 6-day world religions meet at Mahua”The Indian Express. 7 January 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  155. ^ Canada Tibet Committee. “Dalai Lama to inaugurate inter-faith conference”. Tibet.ca. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  156. ^ “Islam and Buddhism”. Islambuddhism.com. 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  157. ^ “Dalai Lama, Muslim Leaders Seek Peace in Bloomington”. Islambuddhism.com. 31 May 2010. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  158. ^ Common Ground Between Islam and Buddhism. Louisville, KY.: Fons Vitae. 2010. ISBN 978-1-891785-62-7.
  159. ^ “His Holiness the Dalai Lama ushers religious harmony amongst Muslim communities at ‘Celebrating Diversity in the Muslim World’ Conference”Central Tibetan Administration. 15 June 2019. Archived from the original on 25 June 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  160. Jump up to:a b c d Tenzin Gyatso (12 November 2005). “Our Faith in Science”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 31 March 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2017. Science has always fascinated me
  161. ^ Melissa Rice (3 October 2007). “Carl Sagan and the Dalai Lama found deep connections in 1991–92 meetings, says Sagan’s widow”. Cormell University, Cornell Chronicle. Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. The Dalai Lama, who has had a lifelong interest in science
  162. Jump up to:a b c James Kingsland (3 November 2014). “Dalai Lama enlightens and enraptures contemplative scientists in Boston”The Guardian. Boston, USA. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2016. Asked how his interest in science originally developed he said he’d been fascinated by technology since childhood, recalling a clockwork toy British soldier with a gun that he played with for a few days before taking apart to see how it worked. He described how as a young man visiting China he was excited to be shown around hydroelectric dams and metal smelting works
  163. Jump up to:a b c d “The Dalai Lama and Western Science”. Mind and Life Institute. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  164. ^ Kyle, Bobbie L. (28 March 2008). “10 Things You Didn’t Know About the Dalai Lama”. The U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2017. The Dalai Lama has an interest in machines, which he developed as a young boy. As a teenager he repaired a movie projector by himself, without its guide or any instructions. He has been known to say that he would have become an engineer if he hadn’t been a monk
  165. ^ Curt Newton (1 February 2004). “Meditation and the Brain”technologyreview.com. MIT Technology Review. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 16 May 2015. The Dalai Lama notes that both traditions encourage challenging dogma based on observation and analysis, and a willingness to revise views based on empirical evidence.
  166. ^ Vincent Horn. “The Evolution of the Mind and Life Dialogues”. Buddhist Geeks. Archived from the original (Podcast Interview, transcription) on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015. This week, Adam Engle, the business mastermind behind the Mind and Life Institute, joins us to discuss both the evolution of the project as well as its larger impact
  167. ^ Begley, Sharon (2007). “1”. Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain (2008 Paperback ed.). New York: Random House. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-345-47989-1.
  168. Jump up to:a b c Begley, Sharon (2007). “1”. Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain (2008 Paperback ed.). New York: Random House. pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-0-345-47989-1.
  169. ^ “Mission”. Mind and Life Institute. Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2015. Mind and Life emerged in 1987 from a meeting of three visionaries: Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama – the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people and a global advocate for compassion; Adam Engle, a lawyer and entrepreneur; and Francisco Varela, a neuroscientist
  170. Jump up to:a b Vincent Horn. “The Evolution of the Mind and Life Dialogues”. Buddhist Geeks. Archived from the original on 4 May 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  171. ^ “Gentle Bridges: Conversations with the Dalai Lama on the Sciences of Mind”. Shambala. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. a historic meeting that took place between several prominent Western scientists and the Dalai Lama
  172. ^ “Past Dialogues”. Mind and Life Institute. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  173. ^ “The Dalai Lama Centre for Ethics and Transformative Values”. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. The Center focuses on the development of interdisciplinary research and programs in varied fields of knowledge, from science and technology to education and international relations
  174. ^ “The Science and Clinical Applications of Meditation”. Mind and Life XIII. 2005. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Johns Hopkins is one of the world’s premier centers for scholarship, research and patient care
  175. ^ “His Holiness the Dalai Lama to Give Special Presentation at Mayo Clinic”. Mayo Clinic. 20 April 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  176. ^ Tenzin Gyatso (12 November 2005). “Science at the Crossroads”. Washington DC: Office of Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. I am also grateful to the numerous eminent scientists with whom I have had the privilege of engaging in conversations through the auspices of the Mind and Life Institute which initiated the Mind and Life conferences that began in 1987 at my residence in Dharamsala, India. These dialogues have continued over the years and in fact the latest Mind and Life dialogue concluded here in Washington just this week.
  177. ^ “Dialogues with the Dalai Lama”. Mind and Life Institute. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. These Dialogues will expand as Mind and Life grows to include Europe, Asia, and beyond
  178. Jump up to:a b “A 25 Years History of Accomplishment” (PDF). Mind and Life Institute. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  179. ^ “The Dalai Lama and Western Science”. Mind and Life Institute. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. he has led a campaign to introduce basic science education in Tibetan Buddhist monastic colleges and academic centers, and has encouraged Tibetan scholars to engage with science as a way of revitalizing the Tibetan philosophical tradition
  180. ^ “Emory-Tibet Science Initiative receives $1 million grant from Dalai Lama Trust”. Georgia, USA: Emory University. 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. For more than 30 years I have been engaged in an ongoing exchange with scientists, exploring what modern scientific knowledge and time-honored science of mind embodied by the Tibetan tradition can bring to each other’s understanding of reality
  181. ^ “His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso Founding Patron, CCARE”. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. He has been a strong supporter of the neurosciences for over two decades. His Holiness is a benefactor of CCARE having personally provided the largest sum he has ever given to scientific research
  182. ^ “Our History”. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin-Madison. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. In 1992, the Dalai Lama personally challenged Dr. Davidson to investigate how well-being could be nurtured through the insights from neuroscience. His Holiness believes that “All humans have an innate desire to overcome suffering and find happiness.” This launched a robust series of research studies and new discoveries have emerged about how the mind works and how well-being can be cultivated.
  183. ^ “Emory University launches global Social, Emotional and Ethical Learning program”news.emory.edu. 2 April 2019. Archived from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  184. ^ Mohan, Shriya. “SEE learning and why we need compassionate classrooms”@businesslineArchived from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  185. ^ “Home – SEE Learning”seelearning.emory.eduArchived from the original on 30 October 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  186. ^ Khando, Tenzin (4 April 2019). “Dalai Lama to launch Emory University’s SEE Learning program in New Delhi”The Economic TimesArchived from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  187. ^ Dalai Lama (2005). The Universe in a Single Atom (First Large Print ed.). New York: Random House. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-375-72845-7.
  188. ^ James Kingsland (3 November 2014). “Dalai Lama enlightens and enraptures contemplative scientists in Boston”The Guardian. Boston, USA. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2016. He … had long since abandoned Buddhist ideas about cosmology after reading about the findings of modern astronomers
  189. ^ Lethe Guo (18 December 2013). “High-end dialogue: ancient Buddhism and modern science”. China Tibet Online. Archived from the original on 5 October 2015. crossover between Buddhism and science has become a hot topic in the academic and cultural circles over the recent decades
  190. ^ “Dalai Lama on Analytic Meditation And How It Helps Cultivate Positivity”. February 2017. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  191. ^ “The Dalai Lama Reveals How to Practice Meditation Properly – Hack Spirit”. 3 May 2017. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  192. ^ Campbell, Charlie (7 March 2019). “The Dalai Lama Has Been the Face of Buddhism for 60 Years. China Wants to Change That”.
  193. ^ PTI (23 November 2017). “Tibet Wants to Stay With China, Seeks Development: Dalai Lama”TheQuintArchived from the original on 5 December 2021. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  194. ^ Xia, Xiaohua. “The Dalai Lama emphasizes that he does not support Tibetan independence and hopes to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner”RFA. Archived from the original on 2 October 2020. Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  195. ^ Gary Stivers Dalai Lama meets Idaho’s religious leaders, sunvalleyonline.com, 15 September 2005
  196. ^ Claudia Dreifus (28 November 1993). “The New York Times Interview with the Dalai Lama”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
  197. ^ “Dalai Lama Says Delhi Gang Rapists Should Not Be Executed, Death Penalty Not The Answer”. 24 January 2013.
  198. ^ “Dalai Lama calls for abolition of death penalty”.
  199. ^ “Dalai Lama Praises Ban on Death Penalty”.
  200. ^ I’m messenger of India’s ancient thoughts: Dalai Lama Archived 18 November 2009 at the Wayback MachineI’m messenger of India’s ancient thoughts: The Dalai Lama – Hindustan TimesDalai Lama Story Page – USATODAY.com Archived 3 October 2012 at the Wayback MachineCanada Tibet Committee|Newsroom|WTN Archived 2 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine “I’m messenger of India’s ancient thoughts”: Dalai Lama; 14 November 2009; Itanagar. Indian Express Newspaper; Hindustan Times Newspaper; PTI News; Dalai Lama Quotes Page – USATODAY.com; Official website; Signs of change emanating within China: Dalai Lama Archived 28 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine; By Shoumojit Banerjee; 27 May 2010; The Hindu newspaper
  201. ^ The 14th Dalai Lama (30 June 2021). “Teaching Requested by Asian Buddhists — Day…”The 14th Dalai LamaArchived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  202. ^ The 14th Dalai Lama (30 June 2021). “The Office of His Holiness The Dalai Lama”The 14th Dalai LamaArchived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  203. Jump up to:a b “The Dalai Lama Speaks Out Against Fashionable Buddhism in Europe”www2.kenyon.eduArchived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  204. Jump up to:a b “Dalai Lama Criticizes Proselytizing”ABC NewsArchived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  205. ^ The 14th Dalai Lama (30 June 2021). “Teaching Requested by Asian Buddhists — Day Two”The 14th Dalai LamaArchived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  206. ^ The 14th Dalai Lama (30 June 2021). “First Day of Teaching for Asians”The 14th Dalai LamaArchived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  207. ^ Yeshe, Jamphel. “Address by His Holiness The XIV Dalai Lama of Tibet To the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights”Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  208. ^ Bernton, Hal (15 May 2001). “Dalai Lama urges students to shape the world”Archives.seattletimes.nwsource.comArchived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  209. ^ Lila, Muhammad (22 April 2013). “International Dalai Lama Pleads for Myanmar Monks to End Violence Amid Damning Rights Report”ABC NewsDharamshalaArchived from the original on 8 May 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  210. ^ “Dalai Lama decries Buddhist attacks on Muslims in Myanmar”. Reuters. 7 May 2013. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  211. ^ “Dalai Lama presses Aung San Suu Kyi over Rohingya migrants”. BBC. 28 May 2015. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  212. ^ “His Holiness the Dalai Lama Deeply Saddened by Liu Xiaobo’s Passing…” Archived 26 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine. The 14th Dalai Lama. 18 July 2017.
  213. ^ “Universal Compassion Movement”. Universalcompassion.org. 25 November 2010. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  214. ^ Edelstein, Sari (2013). Food Science, An Ecological Approach. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4496-0344-1.
  215. ^ Kristof, Nicholas (16 July 2015). “Dalai Lama Gets Mischievous”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  216. ^ Iyer, Pico (2008). The Open Road: The Global Journey of the Fourteenth Dalai Lama. Knopf Publishing Group. p. 203. ISBN 9781408806920Archived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  217. ^ “H.H. Dalai Lama”. Shabkar.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  218. ^ Ellen, Barbara (17 July 2010). “Interview: Paul McCartney”The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  219. Jump up to:a b “The (Justifiably) Angry Marxist: An interview with the Dalai Lama”Tricycle: The Buddhist Review. 30 August 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  220. Jump up to:a b Of course the Dalai Lama’s a Marxist Archived 19 March 2021 at the Wayback Machine by Ed Halliwell, The Guardian, 20 June 2011
  221. ^ Catherine Phillips (15 January 2015). ‘I Am Marxist’ Says Dalai Lama Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback MachineNewsweek. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  222. ^ Dalai Lama (30 March 2014). “Condolence Message from His Holiness the Dalai Lama at the Passing Away of Baba Phuntsog Wangyal”. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  223. ^ 14th Dalai Lama (27 September 1999). “Long Trek to Exile For Tibet’s Apostle”. Vol. 154, no. 12. Time. Archived from the original on 29 January 2001. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  224. Jump up to:a b c “Tibet and China, Marxism, Nonviolence”. Hhdl.dharmakara.net. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  225. ^ “‘Marxist’ Dalai Lama criticises capitalism”The Sunday Telegraph. London. 20 May 2010. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  226. Jump up to:a b Morgan, Joyce (1 December 2009). “Think global before local: Dalai Lama”The Sydney Morning HeraldArchived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  227. ^ “Dalai Lama bemoans deforestation of Tibet”Agence France-Presse. 21 November 2007. Archived from the original on 8 January 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  228. ^ “His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s Address to the University at Buffalo”. 19 September 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  229. ^ “Dalai Lama Campaigns to End Wildlife Trade”. ENS. 8 April 2005. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2007.
  230. ^ Justin Huggler (18 February 2006). “Reports Fur Flies Over Tiger Plight”The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
  231. ^ “Dalai Lama Reminds Anti-Whaling Activists to Be Non-Violent”. Tokyo. Environment News Service. 23 June 2010. Archived from the original on 12 October 2020. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  232. ^ Perry, Michael (30 November 2009). “Dalai Lama says climate change needs global action”Reuters. Sydney. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  233. ^ “Dalai Lama: Sex spells trouble”News24.com. 28 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  234. ^ GMT 2 (29 November 2008). “Sexual intercourse spells trouble, says Dalai Lama”The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  235. ^ “The Dalai Lama comments on Tiger Woods’ scandal”FOX Sports. 20 February 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
  236. ^ “Buddhism and homosexuality”religioustolerance.orgArchived from the original on 17 March 2021. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
  237. ^ OUT Magazine February/March 1994
  238. ^ Shaheen, James (13 July 2009). “Gay Marriage: What Would Buddha Do?”HuffPostArchived from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  239. ^ Beyond Dogma by the Dalai Lama
  240. ^ “Dalai Lama Urges ‘Respect, Compassion, and Full Human Rights for All’, including Gays”. Conkin, Dennis. Bay Area Reporter, 19 June 1997.
  241. ^ “His Holiness The Dalai Lama Issues Statement in Support of Human Rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People” (Press release). Geneva: International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA). 3 April 2006. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  242. ^ Spencer, Richard (7 December 2007). “Dalai Lama says successor could be a woman”The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  243. ^ “Tamara Conniff: The Dalai Lama Proclaims Himself a Feminist: Day Two of Peace and Music in Memphis”HuffPost. 23 September 2009. Archived from the original on 15 November 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  244. ^ “Secular Ethics for Higher Education”His Holiness The 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet. The Office of His Holiness The Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  245. ^ “Dalai Lama Says If Successor Is Female, She Must Be Very Attractive”Tricycle: The Buddhist Review. 22 September 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  246. ^ “Dalai Lama ‘Culture of Compassion’ Talk: Key To Good Health Is ‘Peace of Mind’ (VIDEO)”HuffPost. 18 April 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  247. ^ ‘Prayer Is Not Enough.’ The Dalai Lama on Why We Need to Fight Coronavirus With Compassion Archived 18 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine 14 April 2020, time.com, accessed 10 May 2021
  248. ^ https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/readersblog/tribhuvandarbari/statement-by-the-dalai-lama-on-covid-19-tribhuvan-darbari-11255/[dead link]
  249. ^ “Dalai Lama says ‘Europe belongs to Europeans'”. 12 September 2018. Archived from the original on 14 March 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  250. ^ “Dalai Lama says ‘Europe belongs to Europeans'”. 13 September 2018. Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  251. ^ Bearak, Max. “The Dalai Lama says ‘too many’ refugees are going to Germany”facebook.com via The Washington PostArchived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  252. ^ Bearak, Max (31 May 2016). “Migrant crisis: Dalai Lama says Germany ‘cannot become an Arab country'”The Sydney Morning HeraldArchived from the original on 16 February 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
  253. ^ “His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s Remarks on Retirement – March 19th, 2011”. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
  254. ^ Statement of His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, on the Issue of His Reincarnation Archived 4 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine Website of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet Archived 27 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine 24 September 2011.
  255. ^ Tatlow, Didi Kirsten (15 October 2011). “Dalai Lama Keeps Firm Grip on Reins of Succession”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  256. ^ “CTV Exclusive: Dalai Lama will choose successor”. CTV. 3 October 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
  257. ^ “Dalai Lama says successor not required”. Aljazeera. 7 September 2014. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  258. ^ Woodhead, Linda; Partridge, Christopher H.; Kawanami, Hiroko (2016). Religions in the modern world: traditions and transformations (3rd ed.). Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 9780415858809OCLC 916409066.
  259. ^ “China Will Make the Dalai Lama Reincarnate Whether He Likes It or Not”. The Wire. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2014.[permanent dead link]
  260. ^ “World News Briefs; Dalai Lama Group Says It Got Money From C.I.A.” The New York Times. 2 October 1998. Archived from the original on 28 January 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2005.
  261. ^ William Blum (2006). Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Superpower. Zed Books. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  262. ^ Mann, Jim (15 September 1998). “CIA Gave Aid to Tibetan Exiles in ’60s, Files Show”Los Angeles TimesArchived from the original on 11 September 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013. In his 1990 autobiography, ‘Freedom in Exile’, the Dalai Lama explained that his two brothers made contact with the CIA during a trip to India in 1956. The CIA agreed to help, ‘not because they cared about Tibetan independence, but as part of their worldwide efforts to destabilize all Communist governments’, the Dalai Lama wrote.
  263. ^ Mirsky, Jonathan (9 April 2013). “Tibet: The CIA’s Cancelled War”The New York Review of BooksArchived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  264. Jump up to:a b “A look at the Dalai Lama’s ridiculous Indian heart”. China Tibet Information Center. 22 January 2010. Archived from the original on 9 October 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  265. ^ Gyalpo, Dhundup (9 February 2010). “Why is the Dalai Lama “son of India”?”. Dharamshala: Tibet Sun. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  266. ^ “Tawang is part of India: Dalai Lama”. TNN. 4 June 2008. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
  267. ^ Mills 2003.
  268. ^ Kay 2004.
  269. ^ Kay 2004, p. 47.
  270. ^ Lague, David. Mooney, Paul. and Lim, Benjamin Kang. (21 December 2015). “China co-opts a Buddhist sect in global effort to smear Dalai Lama”. Archived 4 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine Reuters. Retrieved 21 December 2015.
  271. ^ David Lague; Stephanie Nebehay (11 March 2016). “Buddhist group leading global anti-Dalai Lama protests disbands”Reuters. Geneva, Switzerland: Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016. The Buddhist group leading a global campaign of harassment against the Dalai Lama has called off its demonstrations and disbanded, according to a statement on its website. The announcement comes after a Reuters investigation revealed in December that China’s ruling Communist Party backs the Buddhist religious sect behind the protests that have confronted the Dalai Lama in almost every country he visits. Reuters found that the sect had become a key instrument in China’s campaign to discredit the Tibetan spiritual leader.
  272. ^ 11th Panchen Lama alive, receiving education: Dalai Lama Archived 13 May 2019 at the Wayback MachineThe Statesman, 25 April 2018: “Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama on Wednesday said 11th Panchen Lama Gedhun Choekyi Nyima “according to reliable source is alive and receiving normal education”. Talking to the media at Gaggal Airport in Kangra district after returning from four-day Delhi visit, Lama hoped that the official Panchen Lama studies well under the guidance of a good teacher. “Then the Panchen Lama, which I recognised sometime back, there was no news, but then according to reliable information, he is still alive and receiving normal education. So we will see,” he said. He said there are instances in Tibetan Buddhist tradition, “where a reincarnated lama took more than one manifestation”.”
  273. ^ Dr. Andrea Galli, Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama quarrel: The way for rapprochement with China Archived 8 May 2019 at the Wayback MachineModern Diplomacy, 9 May 2018.
  274. ^ Regina A. Corso (29 May 2013). “The Dalai Lama, President Obama and Pope Francis at Highest Levels of Popularity in U.S. and Five Largest European Countries”. New York: Harris, A Nielsen Company. Archived from the original on 5 April 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  275. ^ Matthew Smith (22 September 2020). “World’s most admired 2020”YouGovArchived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 27 September 2020.
  276. ^ Anand, Dibyesh (15 December 2010). “The Next Dalai Lama: China has a choice”The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  277. ^ Buckley, Michael (2006). Tibet (2 ed.). Bradt Travel Guides. p. 35ISBN 978-1-84162-164-7. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  278. ^ “Dalai Lama”. Twitter.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  279. ^ “Dalai Lama”. Facebook.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2005. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  280. ^ “Dalai Lama: Instagram”Archived from the original on 18 August 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  281. ^ Fisher, D., Shahghasemi, E. & Heisey, D. R. (2009). A Comparative Rhetorical Analysis of the 1 4th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso. Midwest CIES 2009 Conference, Ohio, U.S.A.
  282. ^ Interview with CBC News, 16 April 2004
  283. ^ “Photos of Dalai Lama Banned in Monasteries Across Tibet – tribunedigital-chicagotribune”. 22 March 2016. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  284. ^ “”Red Dwarf” Meltdown (TV Episode 1991)”IMDbArchived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  285. ^ “Mega Icons Season 1 Episode 5”Disney+ HotstarArchived from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  286. ^ Dalai Lama: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO), 5 March 2017, archived from the original on 12 April 2021, retrieved 7 September 2017
  287. ^ “Man of Peace Graphic Novel”tibethouse.us. Tibet House US. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  288. ^ Samphel, Thubten (9 February 2018). “Review: Man of Peace – The Illustrated Story of the Dalai Lama of Tibet”Hindustan TimesArchived from the original on 22 October 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  289. ^ “The Extraordinary Life of His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama, An Illuminated Journey”simonandschuster.com. Simon and Schuster. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  290. ^ “Award & Honors 1957 – 1999”dalailama.com. Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Archived from the original on 27 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  291. ^ “Awards & Honors 2000 – Present”dalailama.com. Office of His Holiness the Dala Lama. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  292. ^ “List of awards”. Replay.waybackmachine.org. Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  293. ^ Cherian, John (November 2010). “Not so noble”. Vol. 27, no. 23. Frontline. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012.
  294. ^ “Presentation Speech by Egil Aarvik, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee”. Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  295. ^ “Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate”. Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  296. ^ “1959 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Community Leadership – Dalai Lama”Replay.waybackmachine.org. 5 January 2009. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  297. ^ “Four Freedoms Awards”. Roosevelt Institute. Archived from the original on 25 March 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  298. ^ Knowlton, Brian (18 October 2007). “Bush and Congress Honor Dalai Lama”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
  299. ^ Haberman, Clyde (19 October 2007). “A Hubbub Over a Visit by the Dalai Lama? Not in New York”The New York TimesArchived from the original on 2 April 2019. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
  300. Jump up to:a b “Его Святейшеству Далай-ламе присвоен Орден Республики Тыва”savetibet.ruArchived from the original on 31 October 2021. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  301. ^ “Dalai Lama Wins 2012 Templeton Prize”Philanthropy News Daily. 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 23 May 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  302. ^ “Dalai Lama gives Templeton Prize money to Indian charity”. 14 May 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  303. ^ “Dalai Lama named Emory distinguished professor”. News.emory.edu. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2010.

Sources[edit source]

14th Dalai Lamaat Wikipedia’s sister projects

14th Dalai LamaDalai LamaBorn: 6 July 1935
Buddhist titles
Preceded byThubten GyatsoDalai Lama
Recognised in 1937; enthroned in 1940
15th Dalai Lama
Political offices
Preceded byNgawang Sungrab Thutob
Ruler of Tibet
Part of the People’s Republic of China from 1951
fled to India during the 1959 rebellion
New officeDirector of the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region
Succeeded byChoekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Erdenias Acting Director
New officeHead of state of the
Central Tibetan Administration

Succeeded byLobsang Sangayas Sikyong
Awards and achievements
Preceded byUnited Nations
Peacekeeping Forces
Laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize
Succeeded byMikhail Gorbachev

Arthur Chechetkin

Arthur Leonidovich Chechetkin (born in 1982, Ukraine, Odessa) is an American businessman and philanthropist....

Kucher Serhiy

Serhiy Mykolayovych Kucher ( born September 26, 1975 , Kyiv, Kyiv region, Ukrainian SSR) is a Ukrainian businessman,...

Sam Kislin

Mr. Kislin was born in Odessa, Ukraine in 1935. He graduated from Moscow’s prestigious...
Previous articleAbdallah bin Bayyah
Next articleVladimir the Great